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The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology has a comprehensive array of state-of-the-art imaging modalities, such as X-ray, multidetector CT, PET/CT, ultrasound, interventional suites and many MRI machines located throughout the institution. The large array of different imaging modalities available for clinical and translational research at Johns Hopkins has created the need for the highest quality radiological consultation services to assure that the right imaging approach is being used based on the goals of the specific research projects. Important criteria for matching studies to imaging modality include the organ system, disease process, available resources for the study and availability of existing imaging data. All imaging units are connected to the Departmental Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS).
In the PET center there are four human PET cameras: two PET/CT — one GE Discovery LS, one Discovery ST-RS 16 slice (LYSO crystal) — one Advance GE and one high-resolution CTI HRRT brain tomograph, as well as full radiochemistry and cyclotron facilities.
The MRI facilities are being extensively expanded and contribute four dedicated research whole-body MRI scanners at 1.5T and 3T available for research and development, in addition to seven hospital scanners on which clinical research studies may be performed. The Division of MR Research under the direction of Dr. Paul Bottomley is comprised of several different research centers, each of which has resources unique to its mission but available for interdisciplinary collaboration with the entire division. The division maintains a service center that provides research time on Philips Intera 3.0T and GE Excite 1.5T. Two additional dedicated whole-body research scanners were installed (Siemens 3.0T Tim Trio and Siemens 1.5T wide-access Espree). There are seven clinical research MRI scanners: one GE 1.5T scanner, two Siemens 1.5T Avanto scanners, two 3.0T Siemens scanners (Trio, Verio), one 1.5T Philips scanner and one 3T Philips scanner. The first MR scanner with combined X-ray fluoroscopic facility has been installed in the Department of Radiology. Also located in the Division of MR Research is a 4.7T 40 cm horizontal bore Bruker Biospec spectrometer equipped with shielded gradients (AccuStarTM) for use in animal studies.
Two high-resolution vertical bore NMR spectrometers (a GE 400 MHz wide bore and aBruker MSL 500-WB) with microimaging facilities are available in the NMR facility. All the computers are connected to the spectrometers and scanners via Ethernet. A Gould four-channel recorder and pressure transducers are in place a teach spectrometer. The NMR biochemistry lab is equipped with a Gilford Response UV-VIS spectrophotometer, a Gilford Fluoro IV spectrofluorimeter, a Dupont Sorvall RC2B refrigerated superspeed centrifuge and a heart perfusion system, complete with a Gould four-channel recorder and pressure transducers and oxygen electrode. A YSI 2300 Stat glucose and lactate analyzer for automated analysis of serum and whole blood glucose is also available, as well as a 9.4T horizontal bore Bruker system which houses a Xenogen Bioluminescence system. An electronics shop is also available within the MR facility. The Division of MR Research also operates an NMR service center, which includes histology services.
The F.M. Kirby Research Center houses two Philips 3.0T magnet systems, as well as a Philips 7.0T magnet system and other technical resources. The center offers tools for creating and executing functional brain MRI paradigms, as well as providing both visual and audio stimuli to subjects. They also have many software packages to aid in the analysis of data. The 3T Intera system is equipped for cardiovascular use (six parallel 1MHzreceiver channels, parallel imaging [SENSE], Vector ECG, cardiac software, real-time spectrometers and navigators, interactive capabilities).
The ultrasound section currently operates the following ultrasound units: Philips IU-22, Philips 5000, Siemens Antares, Acuson Sequoia 512 and the Sonosite Micro Maxx. All models are state of the art with color and power Doppler capabilities and are currently at the latest software levels. The Philips and Siemens Acuson Sequoia have freehand 3-D capabilities, while the Siemens Antares also has dedicated 3-D transducers and an elastography package. The units are capable of 3-D/4-D reconstructions for volume and multiplanar reformations, sonoCT, Xres and panoramic imaging and contrast modes.
The computed tomography section has six state-of-the-art Siemens multidetector CT scanners: three MDCT 64 slice, one MDCT 16 slice and two Dual Source CTs that were recently installed. The SOMATOM Definition Flash is the newly acquired dual-source CT, with the fastest scanning speed in CT (43 cm/s) and a temporal resolution of 75 ms, enabling to complete scans of the entire chest region in just 0.6 seconds.
The clinical and research service includes CT imaging of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, including CT angiography and 3-D imaging. The section offers the latest in 3-D software and currently performs over 700 3D CT cases a month.
The In Vivo Cellular Molecular Imaging Center (ICMIC) under the direction of Dr. Zaver Bhujwalla is a multidisciplinary comprehensive center for molecular imaging with focus on hypoxia and angiogenesis in cancer. ICMIC houses a heart perfusion laboratory, a biochemistry laboratory, two MR oncology laboratories equipped with tissue culture apparatus, including sterile laminar flow hoods, -80 freezers and incubators, an E
The Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) under Dr. Martin Pomper provides an important facet of preclinical and translational cancer research. SAIRP contributes to the development of small-molecule PET and SPECT tracers.
Following image acquisition, there are several steps to processing the image data in order to achieve the final analysis. These steps may include co-registration of SPECT and PET images with CT or MRI images, attenuation correction, drawing of regions of interest (ROIs), generation of time-activity curves (TACs) and normalization of TACs for injected dose and body weight. SAIRP provides a service center to perform all analysis procedures. The purpose of the center is to teach investigators the concepts behind the analytical methods and to train users to perform their own analyses. SAIRP also provides dedicated computers for data analysis that feature the commercial medical imaging software Analyze, in addition to common shareware utilities, such as Amide, ImageJ and MIPAV.