Rehabilitation for Stroke
What is stroke rehabilitation?
Stroke rehabilitation or "rehab" helps you regain as much independence and quality of life as possible. Rehab can help you physically, emotionally, socially, and spiritually after stroke. It helps restore you to optimal health, functioning, and well-being. Rehabilitate comes from the Latin "habilitas" which means "to make able again."
The stroke rehab team
The stroke rehab team revolves around the patient and family. The team helps set short- and long-term treatment goals for recovery and is made up of many skilled professionals, including:
- Doctors, such as a neurologist (a doctor who treats conditions of the nervous system such as stroke), a physiatrist (a doctor who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation) and internists
- Rehab nurses
- Rehab specialists
- Physical therapists
- Occupational therapists
- Speech and language pathologists
- Registered dietitians
- Social workers and chaplains
- Psychologists, neuropsychologists, and psychiatrists
- Case managers
The stroke rehab program
The outlook for people who have had a stroke today is more hopeful than ever due to advances in both stroke treatment and rehabilitation. Stroke rehab works best when the patient, family, and rehab staff works together as a team. Family members must learn about physical and mental changes caused by the stroke and how to help the patient become functional again.
Rehab medicine is designed to meet each person's specific needs. So, each program is different. Some general treatment components for stroke rehab programs include:
- Treating the basic disease and preventing complications
- Treating the disability and improving function
- Providing adaptive tools and altering the environment
- Teaching the patient and family and helping them adapt to lifestyle changes
There are 5 main types of disabilities that stroke can cause:
- Paralysis or problems controlling movement, such as walking, balance, or swallowing
- Sensory (ability to feel touch, pain, temperature, or position) disturbances
- Trouble using or understanding language
- Thinking and memory problems
- Emotional disturbances
Stroke rehab can help you recover from the effects of stroke, relearn skills, and develop new ways to do things. The type and extent of rehab goals depend on many variables, including:
- The cause, location, and severity of stroke
- The type and degree of any impairments and disabilities from the stroke
- The overall health of the patient
- Family and community support
Stroke rehab programs may include the following:
Self-care skills, including activities of daily living (ADLs)
Feeding, grooming, bathing, dressing, toileting, and sexual functioning
Walking, transfers, and using a wheelchair
Speech, writing, and other methods of communication
Memory, concentration, judgment, problem solving, and organizational skills
Interacting with others at home and in the community
Medicines and alternative methods of managing pain
Identifying problems and solutions with thinking, behavioral, and emotional issues
Assistance with adapting to lifestyle changes, financial concerns, and discharge planning
Patient and family education and training about stroke, medical care, and adaptive techniques
Choosing a rehab facility
Rehab services are provided in many different settings, including:
- Acute care and rehab hospitals
- Subacute facilities
- Long-term care facilities
- Outpatient rehab facilities
- In the home by home health agencies
When looking for rehab facilities and services, some questions to ask include:
- Does my insurance company have a preferred rehab provider that I must use to qualify for payment of services?
- What is the cost and will my insurance company cover all or part of the cost?
- How far away is the facility and what is the family visiting policy?
- What are the admission criteria?
- What are the qualifications of the facility? Is the facility accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities?
- Has the facility handled treatment for this type of condition before?
- Is therapy scheduled every day? How many hours a day?
- What rehab team members are available for treatment?
- What type of patient and family education and support is available?
- Is there a doctor on site 24 hours a day?
- How are emergencies handled?
- What type of discharge planning and assistance is available?