Effective cancer prevention and control requires an understanding of the causes and risk factors for cancer and development and testing of ways to detect and prevent cancer, particularly for the most vulnerable—minority populations and the underserved. The goal of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program is to conduct population-focused collaborative, multispecialty research to generate foundational knowledge and test and implement preventive and interventional cancer control measures. Cancer Prevention and Control members conduct observational and interventional trials aimed at intercepting causes at all stages of the cancer process—from early prevention to survivorship. The ultimate goal is reducing cancer incidence, recurrence, progression, and associated adverse effects and harm in Maryland and beyond. Discoveries include gene-based strategies and other advanced tools and technologies that allow for earlier detection and even prevention of cancers. Our experts are particularly focused on populations with an increased risk of cancer occurrence and the role of viruses, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cancer development. Methods, such as the development and deployment of new vaccines to stop these viruses from causing cancers, are a primary goal. Research also is focused on populations with an increased risk of cancer occurrence to develop and test methods to intercept and prevent cancer among those at highest risk and to protect the health of cancer survivors from cancer recurrence and progression, development of treatment-related cancers and other adverse effects. Research focuses on common and burdensome cancers, including lung, breast, prostate, colorectal, pancreatic, and HPV-associated cancers. Addressing racial and other disparities that contribute to cancer burden and cancers in at-risk populations, such as those living with HIV, is a priority.