Learning Objectives

First Two Years

During the first two years Fellows are exposed to the acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases, emphasizing accurate ambulatory and bedside clinical diagnosis, appropriate use of diagnostic studies and integration of all data into a well-communicated consultation, with sensitivity to the individual patient.

The order of clinical rotations is based primarily upon availability and the interests of the Fellow. During this time, under the direct supervision of the attending on each rotation, Fellows will begin to acquire and develop skill in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease, demonstrate their ability to gather, synthesize and organize information relating to their patients, as well as demonstrate their understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.

Beginning in the first year, and continuing throughout the training program, Fellows will develop their ability to lead, teach and learn from other members of the healthcare team, as well as their honing their consultative skills in the performance and interpretation of diagnostic tests and procedures. Training will include instruction in the prevention, therapeutics and management of cardiovascular diseases as well as the social, humanistic, moral and ethical aspects of cardiovascular disease. Fellows will demonstrate empathy for patients and their families by attention to pain control, patient comfort, family counseling, informed consent, as well as the ethical and legal principles involved with care and end of life decisions.


Fellows will complete their clinical requirements of the program in the second year. They are expected to continue to refine their clinical skills and assume additional responsibilities in the management of patients with cardiovascular disease, obtain additional training and experience in the performance and applications of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures while under the direct supervision of the faculty member.

Year Three

In their first year, Fellows receive guidance in the selection of a research project. Near the conclusion of this first year, Fellows are asked to select a research mentor, decide on a research project, and prepare a formal research protocol. Early in the second year, the Fellows are asked give a ten-minute oral presentation of their proposed project to the clinical faculty, with fellows invited as well. Feedback by the faculty is given to ensure a productive research experience.


At the beginning of the third year, Fellows will begin their mentored research projects. Active participation in research will provide the trainee with experience in critical thinking, and in evaluating the cardiology literature. This experience is essential in providing a solid foundation in clinical cardiovascular medicine. A fourth year, immediately following the ACGME-accredited three-year program which ends with this third (research) year, is offered and funded, and fellows are encouraged to elect this fourth year, to ensure a productive research experience, and to provide sufficient time for the development of research presentations at national scientific meetings and of publications for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

Fellows will perform their research with a member of the Cardiology faculty. Under very limited circumstances a Fellow may train in a laboratory outside the Division, but with a mentor within Cardiology. Each request for training outside the Division must be approved by the Fellowship Director and the Division Director.

A Ph.D. or M.Sc. in Clinical Investigation is offered as a joint program between the Schools of Medicine and Public Health, incorporating didactic coursework and mentored research.

During the optional fourth year following the accredited three-year program, fellows may elect to pursue advanced subspecialty training in one of several areas, including electrophysiology, intervention, echocardiography and advanced imaging, and heart failure/transplantation.