What is atrial flutter?
Atrial flutter is one of the more common abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). It
affects the upper heart chambers (atria). It's caused by an abnormal electrical circuit
that makes the atria beat quickly and flutter instead of fully squeezing. It can result
in fast heart rates and a heart that doesn't work as well as it should. This causes
symptoms and increases the risk for stroke.
What causes atrial flutter?
Normal electrical heart impulses are sent out from the sinus node (SA node) in the
right atrium. This node controls the heart rate and timing of heartbeats. The electrical
impulses travel through the heart muscle in the atria. This triggers the muscle to
squeeze. In atrial flutter, an abnormal electrical circuit forms in the atria. This
often happens after some types of heart surgery, heart muscle damage, or other heart
changes. This new circuit takes over the heart rhythm and causes the abnormal
Who is at risk for atrial
You are more likely to have atrial
flutter if any of these apply to you:
The older you are, the higher the risk.
- Congenital heart disease
- Past heart surgery
- Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- Over-exercising such as in endurance athletes
What are the symptoms of atrial flutter?
Atrial flutter makes the heart work
well in pumping blood. Some people have no or minor symptoms. If you do have symptoms,
they can include:
- Shortness of breath
- Tiredness (fatigue)
- Fluttering heartbeats (palpitations)
- Swelling in your feet and legs (fluid retention) if you have
How is atrial flutter diagnosed?
To diagnose atrial flutter, your doctor will want to record your heart rhythm. This may include:
Electrocardiography (ECG). This measures the
electrical activity in your heart through tiny patches placed on your chest. The
patches are connected to a machine that records the heart rate.
Holter monitoring. This is a portable ECG that you
can wear to record your heart rhythm for 24 hours.
Event monitoring. This type of ECG samples your
heart rate over several days.
It can be hard to capture atrial
flutter if it happens on and off or only lasts a few minutes. The longer the recording
time of heart rhythm, the higher the chance atrial flutter can be recorded.
In some cases, an implanted monitor
(loop recorder) can be surgically placed underneath the skin over the heart. This can
stay in place for up to 3 years of continuous heart monitoring.
How is atrial flutter treated?
The goal of treatment is to control
the heart rate, prevent stroke, and maintain a normal heart rhythm.
control heart rate, you may be given a prescription medicine that can slow down the
prevent stroke, your doctor may prescribe a blood thinner (anticoagulant) to prevent
a blood clot in the heart. This clot can break free and travel to the brain
Rhythm control involves either
medicine or a procedure.
Antiarrhythmics. These medicines can be taken as
needed to stop an episode. Or you can take them every day to prevent future atrial
Electrical cardioversion. This
is an outpatient procedure where large electrode patches are placed on your chest and
back. Energy is sent as a shock that is synchronized with your heartbeat. This
restores normal rhythm. This is typically done with IV sedation so that the shock is
not felt. Sometimes your doctor may start you on an antiarrhythmic medicine around
the time of the cardioversion. This helps maintain a normal rhythm for a longer
period of time.
Cardiac ablation. This is a non-surgical,
catheter-based procedure that can often cure atrial flutter. It involves threading
wires through a vein in your leg to the heart. Either heat energy or cold energy is
used to destroy the abnormal circuit.
The success rate of each treatment varies. Discuss this with your
What are possible complications of
Although atrial flutter is not life-threatening at first, it does limit how well your
heart pumps blood. This can cause a clot to form in your heart. If the clot breaks
loose, it could lead to a stroke.
time, atrial flutter can weaken your heart muscle. This can lead to heart failure.
Atrial flutter is often linked to a similar heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation.
AFib is the most common type of arrhythmia.
Can atrial flutter be prevented?
Prevention of atrial flutter focuses on controlling or preventing the risk factors.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
alcohol only in moderation, if at all.
- Stop tobacco use.
- Control high blood pressure and diabetes.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Although not immediately life-threatening, complications of atrial flutter can be
serious if left untreated. See your healthcare provider if you notice any of the
possible symptoms of atrial flutter.
Key points about atrial flutter
flutter is a common type of heart arrhythmia.
- You may
have no symptoms.
you may have include a noticeable fast, steady or irregular pulse, shortness of
breath, dizziness, trouble with normal activities or exercise, a feeling that your
heart is pounding, or tightness in your chest.
- Medicines are available to help control your heart rate, maintain normal heart
rhythm, and reduce stroke risk.
- A procedure called catheter ablation can cure atrial flutter.
- Complications from atrial flutter can be life-threatening if the condition is not treated
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.