Colectomy is a type of colon surgery where the diseased portion of the colon is removed. Proctectomy removes part of the rectum, or all of it, and sometimes the anal opening as well.
In both colectomy and proctectomy surgery, it may be possible to remove the diseased portion and reconnect the intestine so normal bowel function is regained after recovery. However, in some cases a colostomy is needed. Colostomy, which creates an opening through the abdomen where the colon empties into a bag, may be permanent or just used temporarily while the intestines heal. This will depend on the severity of the disease, defect or injury.