About Dr. William W. Scott
- Chairman, 1946-1974
- Clinical and Laboratory Research
- Resident Training
- Teaching, Lectures and Visiting Professorships
- Honors and Awards
William Wallace Scott was born in Kansas City, Kansas, on January 27, 1913, the third son of the Reverend Virgil Bryant Scott and Margaret Alena (Smith) Scott. He attended the University of Missouri at Columbia for four years, supporting himself, in part, by alternately driving a cleaning and pressing truck for Vanity Fair and working in the Sigma Nu fraternity house (of which he was a member) making beds, cleaning and waiting on tables. He still recalls using one of the early canister-model Electrolux vacuum cleaners for rugs and floors and Procter & Gamble's Oxydol for the dishes. He had won letters in football, basketball, and track in both of his last two years of high school in Marshall, Missouri, and went out for all three at the University. In track, he was a fair high-hurdler but no competition for Curtis Lambertus of Nebraska. In basketball, he suited-up for some home games but never made the trips. (In those days eight players made the trips and ten suited for home games.) In football, he lettered in his junior but not his senior year, the only player with such an unenviable record. However, in his junior year he won the medal for the best offensive end. His friends delighted in dubbing him "the most offensive end on the campus." Such praise!
Whereas early in college he had aspired of becoming an engineer, working in the research laboratory at the University of Chicago during the Summer of 1932 with his older brother who was a graduate student in physiology and with the middle brother who was to enter medical school that fall, convinced him that a career in physiology or medicine was for him. Consequently, in the spring of 1934 he applied and was accepted for entry in medical school at the University of Chicago that fall. He says, "Fortunately there were no MCAT or other such requirements for entry. " Also "It helped to have two brothers leading the way." Chicago University had the quarter not semester system, each quarter lasting 12 weeks with three quarters required each year. Tuition then was $100 per quarter or $300 per year, $400 of course if you attended during the summer.
The summer of 1934 was spent in earning the necessary tuition for the fall, making sandwiches at the then B and G Restaurant in the Carbon and Carbide Building at the corner of Wacker Drive and Michigan Avenue. Previous experience at making sandwiches was limited to a few occasions at home. Room and board was provided by one brother and his wife for the (not then) paltry sum of $30 per month.
By the second or third quarter, life was made much easier on receiving the Sydney Walker III Fellowship, which continued to pay tuition during the rest of his schooling. This included graduate work culminating in a Ph.D. in physiology in 1938 and an M.D. in 1939, some 20 quarters in all. Needless to say, Scott was very grateful to Dr. Walker who had established this fellowship in honor of his infant son who had died of congenital atresia of his esophagus. Later, much later, while at Brady, actually in 1960, Scott was able to repay Dr. Walker in small measure by successfully removing two stones, one opaque and one nonopaque, from his left kidney. When Dr. Walker died in 1968, among other bequests, a sizable one went to the University of Chicago to honor the great Anton Julius Carlson, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology for many years, and to increase the number of Sydney Walker III Fellowships.
Bill Scott married Jessie Louise McGraw in June 1936 and again life was made easier and much more pleasant. Bill had met Jess in 1932 when both were undergraduates at the University of Missouri. Jess had trained in social work and was employed in this from 1934 until 1944 when their son, Bill, Jr., was born.
After the first two years in medical school during which he took all the electives in physiology and biochemistry, he decided to follow in his two brothers' footsteps and work toward a doctorate in physiology. It is conservative to say that at that time the Department of Physiology at Chicago was the strongest of the basic science departments. It was headed by Anton J. Carlson and staffed by such wonderful people as Arno B. Luckhardt, Ralph Lillie, Nathaniel Kleltman, Ralph Girard, and Victor Johnson. What a remarkable group and opportunity!
Scott's thesis was, "The Physiology of Cerebral Concussion" and for a time he considered going into neurosurgery, but after obtaining his M.D. and interning in surgery under Dallas B. Phemister, and after a strange set of circumstances, he ended up in urology, working first in the laboratory of Charles Huggins and later as his resident and associate.
These proved to be exciting years in many ways. Scott was performing many of the assays for serum acid phosphate with Clarence Hodges, then a medical student, on the first patients treated by castration and/or estrogen therapy. Studies of the urinary 17-ketosteroids of such patients suggested that the adrenals were producing androgens in the absence of the testes and led to the first bilateral adrenalectomies for relapsing prostatic cancer. Scott also was becoming convinced that he wanted to pursue a life in urological surgery and research.
As related earlier, the Scotts moved to Baltimore in the late fall of 1946. Jessie grew to love their home in Ruxton and soon became fascinated with art and gardening. Before long Bill, Jr., was in the local Blue Bird School and Bill, Sr., was spending many hours of the day at the hospital.
Building his surgical practice was slow initially, which is understandable when one considers that Scott's associates were well known locally, as well as nationally and abroad. Early on, much time was spent helping the residents with their so-called "ward patients." Scott's first chief resident was Herbert Brendler who had already completed part of a residency in urology under Sam Vest at the University of Virginia and had been appointed by J.A.C. Colston as chief resident for the period April through December 1946. Brendler was of great help to Scott clinically, and in turn, Scott shared his basic science training and knowledge with Brendler. Scott liked surgery, especially if it were innovative. Examples of such were his introductions to the Brady Institute of simple retropubic prostatectomy for benign disease in late 1946 and ileal urinary diversion in 1955. He preferred adrenal to most other forms of surgery, and before long was doing most of it at Hopkins.
However, having obtained a Ph.D. in physiology at the University of Chicago entailing considerable time in the laboratory and having been impressed during his urological residency with the importance of spending some time in research during a clinical residency, Scott determined early on that a year in the Brady laboratories would be an obligatory and integral part of a four-year program. Eventually, he settled on year 2 of the four for this year in research. This plan has continued to the present.
Whereas the research year was obligatory, the trainees by and large have always had the prerogative of choosing their own research problem. Scott had been persuaded along this line by his mentor in physiology, Anton Julius Carlson, professor and chairman of physiology at Chicago. When Scott came to him as a graduate student to ask him what he should make his thesis for a Ph.D., Carlson's reply in his inimitable Swedish dialect was: "I don't care vat you verk on vether it be fornication and the hunger sense or vat, ve vill supply the tools." Through the years Scott worked hard to supply the tools.
In an account such as this, it seems logical to summarize Scott's activities during his tenure under the several headings that follow: Clinical and Laboratory Research; Resident Training; Teaching, Lectures and Visiting Professorships; Committees; Hobbies; and Honors and Awards.
Although Scott's name appeared on a number of papers on diverse subjects describing research done primarily by residents and associates, his primary concern continued to be prostatic cancer and benign prostatic enlargement, in both man and animals. As early as 1948, while Huggins and his group were evaluating adrenalectomy, Scott had asked A. Earl Walker, then professor of neurosurgery, to perform the first hypophysectomy in the treatment of disseminated prostatic cancer.[4,5] This was before cortisone was available, and as in the case of the adrenalectomized patient, maintenance was nearly impossible. After cortisone became available, more hypophysectomies were done, totaling 17 in number when summarized by Scott and Schirmer in 1962. The consensus then was that as a primary procedure, hypophysectomy was effective but not preferable to castration; it was essentially ineffective in the treatment of patients in relapse following castration and/or estrogen therapy.
Then began laboratory and clinical research seeking to find "antiandrogens" which might be as, or more, effective than estrogens in the treatment of widespread prostatic cancer and also be free of the troublesome side effects of estrogens. Much of this search involved the great help of such people as Charles Tesar and John Grayhack, among others. A number of significant observations were made which included Grayhack's discovery of the action of prolactin in male animals, the suggestion that estrogens potentiated androgenic action in certain situations and that such compounds as cyproterone acetate and flutamide were antiandrogenic in animals and worthy of a trial in humans. This laboratory concentrated on cyproterone acetate primarily, and in 1966 Scott and Schirmer reported that cyproterone acetate was an effective agent in the treatment of disseminated prostatic cancer, probably as effective as diethylstilbestrol and freer of untoward side effects. This continues to be current opinion. However, as in the case of hypophysectomy, it proved to be ineffective in the treatment of relapse after castration-estrogen therapy. In 1969, Scott and Wade reported that cyproterone acetate was somewhat effective in the treatment of benign prostatic enlargement. Most recently Scott was asked to join Pat Walsh and Craig Peters in a study involving pituitary agonists and benign prostatic enlargement.
In 1974, Scott was successful in obtaining the Dunning tumor from his friend, Arthur Bogden, at the Mason Institute, and through the dint of hard work on the part of Jim Harty, this tumor line was kept alive. Since then it and associated strains have proved to be good animal models for evaluating the effect of various hormonal maneuvers on their growth. Scott had learned of this tumor from Wilhelmina Dunning when she had presented her work at a workshop on the prostate in October 1962, for which he had served as program director. The original adenocarcinoma was found in August 1961 by Dr. Dunning at necropsy in an aging retired breeder, a Copenhagen rat, in the dorsal prostate.
Aside from his work on the prostate gland, Scott also had an interest in renal transplantation. In the early 1950s he was the first with Johan de Klerk and H. William Scott to use cortisone in an effort to increase the length of survival of heterologous renal transplants in dogs. He recalls the excitement occasioned by the survival of one dog for 21 days, this dog having only one kidney, that of another dog. Later, as outlined under the section "Funds for Buildings and Research," he helped to establish with Gerald Murphy and Johan de Klerk the Johns Hopkins Stellenbosch Baboon Facility which permitted controlled experiments in renal transplantation in baboons. Later still, with George Zuldema, he raised the necessary monies from private sources to help establish the Division of Transplantation in the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins.
In 1965, Scott, in his presidential address to the Mid-Atlantic Section of the American Urological Association, spoke on "The Training of a Resident" (unpublished). Much of what he said then was to justify a year in research during a clinical residency as worthwhile, regardless of whether the trainee subsequently pursued a career in academic medicine or private practice. To some of us, research is the greatest single tool in the educational process and in developing the faculty for ascertaining the truth. .. . To me, the experience gained in biological research, of most any nature, contributes greatly to the common sense employed, in any approach, to the solution of any clinical problem. He felt strongly that "at least the opportunity to do research must be provided every resident." Concluding this address he said:
Whereas we have no illusions which suggest that great discoveries will be made (during the year in research), we are convinced that the time spent in the laboratory is worthwhile from many standpoints. Certainly, it stimulates curiosity. Among other things, it teaches the resident that all that is written in the scientific and clinical literature is not always so and that much remains to be learned regarding almost all the problems he faces, many of which he had been told were settled once and for all. Most important, it does much to inculcate the scientific method of approach to any problem. For these reasons, the time spent in the laboratory will stand him in good stead whether he later becomes a clinician or academician.
The rewards of the resident who has developed an ambition to do better are great indeed. It is he who develops a new tool, a new drug, a new operation, or he who contributes a bit of sound, new knowledge upon which a future advance will be based.
And perhaps most important of all, he is rewarded by belief in himself, a belief that his training has equipped him to deal with the problems of today and somehow of tomorrow.
Scott was delighted to find examples by others sharing his philosophy of heading a training program. In his files can be found a folder stuffed with clippings citing such examples. He selected a few for quotation here.
Robert E. Kirby became chairman of the board of Westinghouse in February 1975. In 1952, Westinghouse had sent Kirby to Harvard Business School for 16 months. Kirby recalls that period as one of the most exciting of his life. He became interested in the art of management there, he says. Harvard planted the seeds that grew into Kirby's management philosophy: that it is best to give people responsibility and not look over their shoulders.
I'm not sure I was always that way. When I came out [of Harvard Business School] I saw managers who did look over people's shoulders, and I saw what it did to them. It stopped growth. You have to make mistakes to learn. Nobody's perfect. If you're right more than 70 percent of the time, you ought to have a book written about you, and it ought to be called the Bible. Management is the ability to train and inspire people. We spend an enormous amount of time making sure our people have the educational background, but the ones who are going to succeed are the ones who are interested in people-their development, their growth. Another clipping was from the combined year-end issue for 1985 of U.S. News and World Report in which Daniel J. Boorstin quotes General George Marshall, who knew a thing or two about leadership, describing a leader as "a person who exerts an influence and makes you want to do better than you could."
Of his several heros, Scott favored John Hunter. He keeps a copy of John Kobler's The Reluctant Surgeon handy on his desk with numerous passages indicated by slips of paper throughout. One favorite passage from it follows:
No surgeon should approach the victim of his operation without a sacred dread and reluctance, and should be superior to that popular eclat generally attending painful operations, often only because they are so, or because they are expensive to the patient ....
If the disease is already formed, we ought to know the modes of action in the body and the parts, in their endeavor to relieve themselves; the powers they have of restoring themselves, and the means of assisting the powers. Or, if these prove insufficient, we judge, by all the attending circumstances, how far excision may be necessary, and what condition is most favourable for an operation. To determine on this last point is exceedingly difficult, and in some instances, exceeds our present knowledge. Never perform an operation on another person which, under similar circumstances you would not have performed upon yourself.
It was extremely gratifying to Scott that 22 of 65 of the residents training during his tenure later went on to head departments of urology in medical schools here and abroad. Also, many became chiefs of urology in hospitals not closely associated with medical schools.
Scott loved to teach, especially on a one-to-one basis. He called this the "Chicago system," to which he had been exposed as a student at the University of Chicago School of Medicine. He continues to believe that the professors should be doing most of the teaching of medical students and not necessarily only the residents and house staff. He and others were distressed when urology became an elective rather than a required course.
During his tenure, Scott gave 15 named lectures and participated in some 25 visiting professorships. Among the lectureships, he was most proud of giving the Austin M. Curtis Memorial Lecture at Howard University, the first Nathan G. Alcock Lecture at the University of Iowa, the Ramon Guiteras Lecture, the Dallas B. Phemister Lecture, and the, Hugh Hampton Young Lecture.
Scott had many friends at Howard University, some of whom he had first met during their graduate training in the basic medical sciences at the University of Chicago. These included Dean Joseph L. Johnson, Robert S. Jason in pathology, Walter M. Booker in pharmacology, and R. Frank Jones in urology.
One of his best friends was Bill Lucas, who had received his clinical training in urology with Willet Whitmore, and who had spent one year in steroid research with Tesar and Scott in Brady. Lucas was primed to head urology at Howard only to have his career ended at an early age by cancer.
Rubin Flocks, who had succeeded Nathan Alcock as professor of urology at Iowa, had invited Scott to give the first lecture in Alcock's honor. Scott had been grateful to Alcock for many things, including two week's tutelage in the art of transurethral resection just before assuming the chair at Hopkins. Scott also shared Alcock's interest in football, and the afternoons of this two-week stay were spent watching football practice at the stadium. Doc Anderson was the head coach and a friend and fellow urologist with Alcock; Frank Carideo, who was the backfield coach, had been the head coach at Missouri when Scott played there. Pleasant memories!
Scott gave the prestigious Ramon Guiteras Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association in 1982. This gave him considerable satisfaction in that he was one of the few urologists in recent years to be so honored.
Concerning the Phemister Lecture, Scott had always admired Dr. Phemister, who was chief of surgery at the University of Chicago, when Scott was an intern and resident, and in 1952 on the occasion of the 25 anniversary of the opening of the clinical departments at the University of Chicago, Scott had given a short paper and had heard the first two Phemister Memorial Lectures, the first, that evening, being delivered by Evarts Ambrose Graham, professor emeritus of surgery at Washington University, and the second by Alfred Blalock, professor and director, Department of Surgery, at The Johns Hopkins University. He considered it a great honor to have been asked to give the 11th lecture in 1982.
In 1984, Scott was asked to give the annual Hugh Hampton Young Lecture of the Mid-Atlantic Section of the American Urological Association. Ordinarily the invitee is from another section, so Scott was especially pleased that his own section had seen fit to honor him again, one year after having been elected to honorary membership. He was even more pleased to receive a letter a few weeks later from one of his former residents, also an academician:
This week has passed too quickly! I have been anxious to write and tell you how much I enjoyed the Hugh Hampton Young Lecture that you delivered. This was a wonderful and scholarly presentation, inclusive in scope while concise and beautifully organized and presented; I wish all our residents and staff could have been present to hear your lecture.
Among the numerous visiting professorships Scott appears to have enjoyed three in particular, at least from his reminiscences: Guy's Hospital in London in 1951; Santa Casa da Misericordia in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1953; and a cruise on the TS Hanseatic during the 1970 meeting of the South Eastern Section of the AUA when he gave the Edward G. Ballinger Lecture.
Beginning in 1946, The Johns Hopkins Hospital established an annual exchange with Guy's Hospital in London. Two physicians from each institution would spend four to six weeks during alternate years at each, making ward rounds, operating, and lecturing. The first two from Hopkins were Alfred Blalock in surgery and A.M. Harvey in medicine, and in 1951, John Eager Howard and Bill Scott were invited to participate.
So, in June, Lucy and John Howard and their daughter Lulu, and Jessie and Bill Scott set sail for England on the Parthia to begin a most pleasant six weeks. Time and space permits but a brief description of the many activities during the stay. George Doherty was director of Guy's Hospital and also chief of urology, and it seemed to the Scotts that he made every effort to see that they went everywhere and met everyone. Several weekends were spent at Huntercombe, a club south of the hamlet of Nuffield and bordering on the estate of Lord Nuffield who gave so much to Guy's. Some will recall that before being made a lord, Mr. Morris had become one of Britain's motor magnates. One of his cars was named MG after Morris Garage. Mr. Morris had wanted to study medicine, but due to the poor health of his parents and the need for his support, he went to work at an early age repairing cycles and cars and in turn building them and, in time, went on to amass a fortune. Scott recalls several conversations with Lord Nuffield, in one of which Nuffield suggested that perhaps his monetary support to Guy's and to Oxford had done more for medicine than had he been able to study and practice it. Other weekends were spent in seeing a play at the Shakespeare Theater at Stratford on Avon, visiting Darwin's home and the Buxton Brown animal farm of the Royal College of Surgeons at Down Farnborough Kent, a sail around the Kyle of Bute, and a visit to Edinborough.
Mornings were spent operating and teaching at Guy's, and Bill Scott was pleased to have performed the first perineal prostatectomy ever done at Guy's. Happily this went well, and whenever the patient returned for followup was referred to as "The Perineal" not Mr. "So-and-So".
The time was all too short and ended with the Howards and the Scotts hosting a Fourth of July celebration in the Guy's Hospital dining room. Nineteen fifty one was a year during England's postwar period of austerity and the English enjoyed the somewhat higher proof scotch whiskey and gin provided by their hosts.
The visit ended too soon. It was wonderful to have been a part of Guy's for even such a short time; the Guy's Hospital where their Gordon Museum housed in one glass case Bright's kidneys, Addison's adrenals, and Hodgkin's nodes. Truly a heritage of excellence.
Early in 1953, Scott had cared for Oswaldo Aranha, Sr., as a patient. He was a man possessing great personal charm. Mr. Aranha was then Minister of Finance in Brazil and lived in Rio de Janeiro. He was accompanied to the States by two of his sons, Oswaldo, Jr., and Euclides, both of whom turned out to be avid hunters.
Oswaldo, Sr., was grateful to Scott for saving him an exploration of his kidney, and later that year invited him to spend a month in Brazil. Scott describes his experiences in a brief introduction to an article on medical education which he prepared as an introduction for the 1953 Year Book of Urology which he edited between 1950 and 1963. Your editor had the good fortune to spend September 1953 in Brazil. It was truly a delightful experience. One week was spent in hunting in the fabulous state of Mato Grosso and three weeks were spent in sightseeing, lecturing, etc., in 'The Wonder City,' Rio de Janeiro.
Flying from Rio to the ranch (fazenda), where we were to hunt, I was quite unprepared to appreciate what was in store. We paused in Sao Paulo, Campo Grande and Corumba, then landed on a huge ranch near Nhecholandia in the region known as Pantanal. One hour in a Willys four-wheel drive jeep saw us to our destination. My hosts and hunting partners were most gracious.
We hunted with gun and camera for the next four days from sunup to sundown except for one to two hours in the hammock each midday. I have never seen such fauna and flora. Wild ducks like ours were abundant; huge ducks as big as our geese were equally so. Doves, parakeets, macaws, flamingos, toucans, egrets, screamers and many other birds were in profusion. Land and aquatic animals were equally numerous and included alligators, crocodiles, lizards, armadillos, ostrich-like running birds which I judge were emus, deer, wild pigs, tapirs and the giant guinea pig-the capybara. Spring flowering trees in their pastel pinks, lavenders and yellows were gorgeous. A hunter's paradise or a photographer's Elysium.
Scott gave five lectures on medical subjects at the hospital Santa Casa da Misericordia, and one on medical education at the University of Brazil. Dr. Paulo de Albuquerque, who had completed his residency at Massachusetts General Hospital in the early 1940s, was chief of urology at Santa Casa and an old friend of Scott's. As a matter of fact they had taken their American Board Examinations together in Chicago. Paulo and his dear wife, Arminda, did much to make Scott's stay in Brazil a memorable one.
In spite of keeping busy with the affairs of the Brady, Scott always showed a willingness to serve on faculty committees of the School of Medicine at Hopkins and the National Institutes of Health and Armed Forces in Washington.
Among those at Hopkins were the Committee on Atypical Growth, the Joint Committee on Cancer Teaching and Research, which he chaired for several years, the Committee on Illustration, the Committee on Instruction and Examination for the third and fourth year of the course, the Committee on Postdoctoral Fellowships, the Committee on Scholarships, Fellowships and Awards, the Dean's Committee on Governance, the House Staff Policy Review Committee, the Institutional Research Grant Project Committee, the medical board of the Hospital, several search committees including pediatrics, neurosurgery, and radiation oncology, and for two terms with the Professional Promotions Committee. As mentioned elsewhere in this volume, while serving on the Dean's Committee on Governance he was a champion of the idea that departmental heads should step down at age 55 or after 15 years. Although this policy was never adopted at Hopkins, probably because it was not affordable, it did prompt Scott to relinquish his chairmanship earlier than usual. In January 1973, the Division of Urology became a free-standing department in the medical school.
At the National Institutes of Health, Scott served on the Endocrinology Panel of the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center and later as chairman of the Cancer Chemotherapy Study Section of the National Cancer Institute. Later he was asked by Keith Cannon of the National Academy of Science to serve on the National Research Council to chair an ad hoc committee on the skeletal system of the parent National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. It was this committee which was instrumental in recommending more funding for clinical training grants in urology, resulting in an increase from 3 under the National Cancer Institute to I 1 under the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. Bill Boyce was of great help in this. This served to put a firm financial foundation under research in urology, and encouraged a number of fine young men to pursue a career in research and academic medicine.
Lastly in this regard, Scott served as consultant in urology at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and the United States Naval Hospital, for some 23 years, and at the Clinical Center of the National Cancer Institute since its beginning.
Scott devoted what time he could to several hobbies. Vicariously, he very much enjoyed his wife Jessie's hobbies of propagating rhododendrons and azaleas and raising cattle. Early on, he and their son Bill, Jr., developed a lasting interest in building furniture and restoring old cars. Some of the pieces of furniture were originals made from walnut grown on their land. Some were copies of masterpieces of period design purchased and assembled.
Perhaps restoration of cars and machines was the most exciting, at least to the father. Figure 5 illustrates three of the cars completed or in the process then: a 1940 LaSalle convertible coupe (the last of the Lasalles'); a 1957 Corvette, shortly after Corvettes had changed from six to eight cylinders; and a 1963 Riviera, the first of this magnificent breed. Restoration also included a 1955 New Idea manure spreader for good measure.
Finally, in recognition of his efforts, Scott received numerous awards. These included the Harry Ginsberg Award in Physiology at the University of Chicago; election to Alpha Omega Alpha in medical school and an honorary membership in Phi Beta Kappa at Hopkins; sharing the Gold Medal for Research in Prostatic Growth with Charles Huggins and Phillip Clark, presented in New York City in 1940 by the American Medical Association; the Distinguished Service Award of the university of Chicago in 1958; both the Barringer and Keyes medals of the American Association of Genito-Urinary Surgeons; the Guiteras and Fuller medals of the American Urological Association; and an honorary Doctor of Science degree from the University of Missouri. He served as president of the Mid- Atlantic Section of the AUA in 1965 and of both the Clinical Society of Genito-Urinary Surgeons and the American Association of Genito-Urinary Surgeons in 1974 and 1978, respectively, and is an honorary member of several of the sections of the American Urological Association and of the British Association of Urological Surgeons.
Of these he was especially pleased with the Gold Medal of the American Medical Association, the Distinguished Service Award from his medical school, and the two medals of the Genito-Urinary Surgeons. He was also grateful to his alma mater, the University of Missouri, for the D.Sc. degree, awarded 40 years after receiving his A.B. there in 1934.
During his tenure, his residents saw fit to purchase his portrait on one occasion for the hospital and to commission a replacement on another. Very few people liked the first portrait. Scott, however, liked the composition because it contained a small picture of his wife and son, part of John Hunter's Cardiff Giant and the "mock-up" of the first cover of Investigative Urology. He was grateful to his residents on both occasions. His last portrait how hangs with Hugh Young's, in the rotunda of the new Brady in Marburg. This was painted by Wayne Ingram and is reproduced in this section.
The final figure here is one of a photographic collage prepared by one of the former Brady residents, Herbert Schwarz, in the early 1970s. It includes most of the residents during Scott's tenure, as well as members of the Brady staff, both clinical and laboratory. Bill's wife, Jessie, who was so kind to so many of the residents over the course of so many years, is seen in the left center of the collage. The residents had presented this to the Scotts, and on the occasion of the presentation of Scott's first portrait to the hospital in 1973, Scott had returned the collage to the Brady with the hope that it would hang next to the pictures of all of them. It now hangs in the corridor of the new Brady Research Laboratory. Finally, when Scott was asked what he thought about his experiences at Hopkins he replied: "It has been a wonderful opportunity to help in the training of fine young men, to give them the benefit of what good training I have had, and to make every effort to improve on that."
- Scott, W. W. and Vermeulen, C. W.: Studies on prostatic cancer. V. Excretion of 17-ketosteroids, estrogens, and gonadotropins before and after castration. J. Clin. En- docrinol., 2:450, 1942.
- Huggins, C. and Scott, W. W.: Bilateral adrenalectomy in prostatic cancer. Clinical features and urinary excre- tion of 17-ketosteroids and estrogen. Ann. Surg., 112:1031, 1945.
- Stamey, T. A. and Scott, W. W.: Ureteroileal anasto- mosis. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 104:11, 1957.
- Scott, W. W.: Endocrine management of disseminated prostatic cancer including bilateral adrenalectomy and hypophysectomy. Trans. Am. Assoc. Genito-Urin. Surg., 44:101, 1952.
- Scott, W. W.: Role of pituitary in normal and abnormal prostatic growth. Trans. Am. Assoc. Genito-Urin. Surg., 46:33, 1954.
- Scott, W. W. and Schirmer, H. K. A.: Hypophysectomy for disseminated prostatic cancer. In: On Cancer and Hormones: Essays in Experimental Biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1962, pp. 175-204.
- Grayhack, J. T., Bunce, P. L., Kearns, J. W. and Scott, W. W.: Influence of the pituitary on prostatic response to androgen in the rat. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 96: 154, 1955.
- Scott, W. W. and Schirmer, H. K. A.: A new oral progestational steroid effective in treating prostatic can- cer. Trans. Am. Assoc. Genito-Urin. Surg., 58:54, 1966.
- Scott, W. W. and Wade, J. C.: Medical treatment of benign nodular hyperplasia with cyproterone acetate. J. Urol., 101:81, 1969.
- Peters, C., Scott, W. W. and Walsh, P. C.: The response of human BPH to androgen deprivation. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Urological Asso- ciation, New York, 1986.
- Smolev, J. K., Coffey, D. S. and Scott, W. W.: Experi- mental models for study of prostatic adenocarcinoma. J. Urol., 118:216, 1977.
- Dunning, W. F.: Prostate cancer in the rat. National Cancer Institute Monograph 12-Biology of the pros- tate and related tissues, 1963, pp. 351-364.
- de Klerk, J. N., Scott, H. W. and Scott, W. W.: Renal homotransplantation: 1. The effect of cortisone on the transplant. II. The effect of the transplant on the host. Ann. Surg., 140:711, 1954. Kirby, R. E.: [Excerpt] Sky, 1982.
- Kobler, J.: The Reluctant Surgeon-A Biography of John Hunter. Doubleday and Co., Inc., Garden City, New York, 1960, p. 165.