Caring for Patients with COVID-19 and Post-Intensive Care Syndrome

Published in Restore - Restore Summer 2020

Patients with COVID-19 are staying longer than the average three to four days in the intensive care unit (ICU), says Megan Hosey, a rehabilitation psychologist at The Johns Hopkins Hospital’s medical ICU. This puts them at greater risk for developing post-intensive care syndrome (PICS).

While more patients than ever are surviving after treatment in the ICU, research over the last two decades shows that survival can come with the cluster of physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms associated with PICS — hindering patients’ quality of life for weeks or years to come. Although the exact prevalence of PICS is unknown, “it happens in more patients than we probably realize,” says Hosey, and it is occurring in some patients with COVID-19.

Treating Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Anxiety in Patients with COVID-19

Hosey works closely Dale Needham, a Johns Hopkins critical care physician and researcher who is internationally renowned for advancing PICS research. Needham says patients with COVID-19 can develop pneumonia that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These patients require a ventilator in the ICU, and, for patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, it’s not unusual to be on a ventilator for more than two weeks. Other patients in the ICU with COVID-19 are typically on oxygen or highly concentrated oxygen.

Hosey also works with Joe Bienvenu, a Johns Hopkins psychiatrist who studies survivors of critical illnesses and intensive care. As of mid-April, 2020, one of the conditions Bienvenu and Hosey find most concerning in patients with COVID-19 in the ICU is anxiety. Reasons include having difficulty breathing, being away from family, fear of getting others sick and fear of reports in the media.

Lately, Hosey has been interacting with these patients remotely — on the phone and in video meetings — to decrease transmission of the coronavirus and to conserve personal protective equipment. Patients use the telephones and tablets in their rooms for these visits.

An important aspect of care is to find what makes life most worthwhile for these patients. “Even in the ICU, we try to help patients see the things that are pleasurable and meaningful in their lives because these [reminders] can protect against anxiety and depression. The sooner you can get back into these activities — or even talking about them — the better,” says Hosey.

Hosey also helps patients by reaching out to family members to better understand the patient's history and what helps them cope. In addition, these phone calls assure families that she is taking care of their loved one, even though they are unable to visit.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Email Alerts

Sign up to receive coronavirus (COVID-19) email updates from Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Sign up now

Recognizing Delirium in Patients with COVID-19

Along with anxiety, Hosey and Bienvenu’s biggest concern regarding the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in the ICU is delirium.

The condition can set in when a patient is in an unfamiliar environment, under sedation and working overtime to fight infection or to recover from an injury, says Bienvenu. Patients often describe frightening nightmare-like experiences, sometimes with themes of betrayal by doctors and nurses — at times, even by loved ones.

Hosey says the prevalence of delirium in patients with COVID-19 in the ICU is especially high, likely due to the amount of sedation needed to keep patients on ventilators for an extended period of time.

Unfortunately, the effects of delirium can linger. “Even after it resolves,” Bienvenu says, “the memories can lead to mental health effects downstream — increased symptoms of anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. Patients may have anxious reactions when they see a hospital. They find themselves wanting to avoid hospitals, and becoming very fearful that they will get sick again.”

Because delirium can also cause cognitive changes in attention, thinking and memory that last beyond hospitalization, Hosey talks to patients about getting in touch with a mental health provider who understands post-intensive care syndrome.

Physical, Speech and Occupational Therapists Report to Johns Hopkins ICU

According to Jennifer Zanni, a Johns Hopkins physical therapist who worked in the ICU for 18 years and now specializes in intensive outpatient post-acute rehabilitation, many therapists from Johns Hopkins rehabilitation facilities have been reassigned to The Johns Hopkins Hospital. These physical, speech and occupational therapists are focused on the early recovery of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, including helping with patient proning in the ICU. Needham says anecdotal evidence shows proning is working for patients with severe pneumonia and COVID-19.

Early Rehabilitation in the ICU Helps Recovery from COVID-19

By helping patients manage their health in the ICU as early as possible, Hosey believes patients will be better equipped to engage in the next phase of their recovery. “Very few ICUs in the country provide patients with the amount and intensity of early rehabilitation that we provide at Hopkins,” she says.

Needham agrees. “We've got an extraordinary program that routinely provides psychological help and physical, occupational and speech therapy, on top of medical care in the ICU. During the pandemic, this program continues.”

Soon, patients recovering from COVID-19 will have a convenient resource to report and monitor their health, including PICS. Ann Marie Parker, a Johns Hopkins physician who specializes in pulmonary and critical care medicine, as well as delirium and rehabilitation in the ICU, is creating a virtual clinic for COVID-19 survivors.

For more on how the Johns Hopkins Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation approaches recovery, attend an Upcoming Webinar.

Early, Intense Rehabilitation for Stroke Recovery

Rehabilitation professionals join patient care teams within the first 24 to 36 hours of hospital admission for stroke to get the best outcomes.

An image shows magnetic resonance venography of the brain.

On the Road to Advance Cognitive Screening and Management for Multiple Sclerosis

The Johns Hopkins clinical research program that focuses on multiple sclerosis and rehabilitation psychology has several ongoing grant-funded projects.

A screenshot shows iCAMS.