Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which comes from an abnormal B lymphocyte (white blood cell). Hodgkin lymphoma is most common in young adults ages 16 to 34 and in older people ages 55 and older.
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas come from either abnormal white blood cells called B cells or T cells. Different kinds of non-Hodgkin lymphomas may have specific genetic markers and are usually associated with chromosome abnormalities. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are most likely to occur in people age 55 and older.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a fast-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects a type of white blood cell called B-lymphocytes.
Follicular lymphoma is a very slow-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects a type of white blood cell called B lymphocytes.
High-grade B-cell lymphoma is a fast-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects B cells and shows rearrangements in the MYC gene or BCL2 or BCL6 genes.
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma is a set of fast-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects two types of white blood cells called T cells and natural killer (NK) cells.
Cutaneous lymphomas are mostly slow-growing non-Hodgkin lymphomas that appear on the skin with no evidence of disease outside the skin. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas start in white blood cells called B lymphocytes. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas start in white blood cells called T cells can involve the skin, blood, lymph nodes, and other organs.
HIV-associated lymphoma occurs when cancer cells affect the lymph system after HIV infection. These lymphomas can be Hodgkin but are most often non-Hodgkin variety, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and a B-cell lymphoma called Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Johns Hopkins’ Richard Ambinder, M.D, is one of the world's leading experts on HIV-associated cancers
Post-transplant lymphomas can occur after transplant of a solid organ like a kidney, lung, liver, or heart, or after some bone marrow or stem cell transplantation. The lymphoma is thought to be caused by the infection of B-cells with the Epstein-Barr virus.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a cancer that affects white blood cells primarily in the bone marrow and bloodstream, although the lymph system and spleen may also be involved.
Bone marrow or blood cell transplant may involve a patient’s own marrow or blood cells or those of a donor. Cellular therapies may involve genetically engineered T cells that have been programmed to specifically attack tumor cells such as CAR-T cells.