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Dr. Andrea Cox

Andrea Cox

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Research Summary

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has doubled over the last two decades in the United States. Between 1992 and 2002, HCC was second only to thyroid cancer for the largest increase in incidence and was responsible for the largest increase in cancer death rates. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of HCC in the United States, Europe, Japan, Australia, and many other parts of the world, and the increase in rates of HCC has been attributed to earlier increases in HCV infection rates. An estimated 170 million people are infected with HCV worldwide, with nearly 4 million people chronically infected in the United States. Of those exposed to HCV, 80% become chronically infected, and at least 30% of carriers develop chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and HCC. Our laboratory investigates the host immune response to infection with HCV, including the role of the immune response in clearance of HCV upon exposure to this virus. We study the humoral and cellular immune responses to HCV from the earliest phases of infection through years following infection, allowing assessment of the response irrespective of the outcome of infection. 

An HCV vaccine would likely decrease the incidence of HCC, but a significant barrier to the development of an HCV vaccine is that HCV is a highly diverse virus. HCV is diverse both between and within people, as it exists in each infected person as a quasispecies, or “swarm” of closely related but distinct genetic sequences. We have defined and are investigating the use of a consensus sequence, for which each amino acid is that most commonly found at that position, in an HCV vaccine. One theoretical advantage of the consensus sequence is that it minimizes the genetic differences between vaccine strains and contemporary isolates, effectively reducing the extent of diversity by half, and thus it may have enhanced potential for eliciting cross-reactive responses. We recently demonstrated that many immune responses generated against the consensus sequence are cross-reactive with the HCV strains circulating in HCV-infected patients. A virus capable of genetic variation and of causing chronic infection will evolve to optimize its fitness in each host, a process that is the net sum of immune recognition and functional constraints on replication. Because the consensus sequence is composed of the amino acid most commonly observed at each position, it likely represents the most fit state of the virus. Thus, effective evasion of the immune response by selection of a sequence divergent from consensus may result in a less fit virus from a replicative standpoint. We have recently demonstrated that immune pressure drives mutation of the virus away from the consensus sequence and toward a potentially less fit strain.3

Despite ongoing viremia with sequence evolution in those chronically infected with HCV, we have shown that in the majority of individuals, the CD8+ T cell responses generated early in HCV infection decline in peripheral blood and are not replaced with new responses.2 Our results suggest that the development of HCV-specific T cell clones is arrested during the first year of infection. We are currently investigating the molecular phenotypes associated with this loss of functional activity and are characterizing differences between the functional and molecular phenotype of lymphocytes recognizing epitopes that undergo substitution and those recognizing epitopes that do not. Identifying the molecules associated with decreased function might provide targets for blockade, enhancing immunogenicity of a vaccine. Thus, the overall goal of our program includes understanding immune system failure to clear HCV infection in order to overcome the mechanisms of immune evasion that limit HCV vaccine efficacy.

Journal Citations

Bastian, P.J.; Gonzalgo, M.L.; Aronson, W.J.; Terris, M.K.; Kane, C.J.; Amling, C.L.; Presti, J.C., Jr.; Mangold, L.A.; Humphreys, E.; Epstein, J.I.; Partin, A.W.; Freedland, S.J. Clinical and pathologic outcome after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer patients with a preoperative Gleason sum of 8 to 10. Cancer. 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1265-1272.

Berndt, S.I.; Platz, E.A.; Fallin, M.D.; Thuita, L.W.; Hoffman, S.C.; Helzlsouer, K.J. Genetic variation in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Nov;15(11):2263-2269.

Carter, H.B.; Ferrucci, L.; Kettermann, A.; Landis, P.; Wright, E.J.; Epstein, J.I.; Trock, B.J.; Metter, E.J. Detection of life-threatening prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen velocity during a window of curability. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Nov 1;98(21):1521-1527.

Chen, C.L.; Sung, J.; Cohen, M.; Chowdhury, W.H.; Sachs, M.D.; Li, Y.; Lakshmanan, Y.; Yung, B.Y.; Lupold, S.E.; Rodriguez, R. Valproic acid inhibits invasiveness in bladder cancer but not in prostate cancer cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Nov;319(2):533-542.

Fagundes, R.B.; Abnet, C.C.; Strickland, P.T.; Kamangar, F.; Roth, M.J.; Taylor, P.R.; Dawsey, S.M. Higher urine 1-hydroxy pyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) is associated with tobacco smoke exposure and drinking mate in healthy subjects from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:139.

Freedland, S.J.; Humphreys, E.B.; Mangold, L.A.; Eisenberger, M.; Partin, A.W. Time to prostate specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy and risk of prostate cancer specific mortality. J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 1):1404-1408.

Genkinger, J.M.; Platz, E.A.; Hoffman, S.C.; Strickland, P.; Huang, H.Y.; Comstock, G.W.; Helzlsouer, K.J. C47T polymorphism in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), antioxidant intake and survival. Mechanisms of ageing and development. 2006 Apr;127(4):371-377.

Hoti, N.; Chowdhury, W.; Hsieh, J.T.; Sachs, M.D.; Lupold, S.E.; Rodriguez, R. Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is an antagonist for oncolytic adenoviral gene therapy. Mol Ther. 2006 Dec;14(6):768-778.

Ingle, J.N.; Tu, D.; Pater, J.L.; Martino, S.; Robert, N.J.; Muss, H.B.; Piccart, M.J.; Castiglione, M.; Shepherd, L.E.; Pritchard, K.I.; Livingston, R.B.; Davidson, N.E.; Norton, L.; Perez, E.A.; Abrams, J.S.; Cameron, D.A.; Palmer, M.J.; Goss, P.E. Duration of letrozole treatment and outcomes in the placebo-controlled NCIC CTG MA.17 extended adjuvant therapy trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Oct;99(3):295-300.

Jiang, W.W.; Rosenbaum, E.; Mambo, E.; Zahurak, M.; Masayesva, B.; Carvalho, A.L.; Zhou, S.; Westra, W.H.; Alberg, A.J.; Sidransky, D.; Koch, W.; Califano, J.A. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in posttreatment salivary rinses from head and neck cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1564-1569.

Jimeno, A.; Amador, M.L.; Kulesza, P.; Wang, X.; Rubio-Viqueira, B.; Zhang, X.; Chan, A.; Wheelhouse, J.; Kuramochi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Danenberg, K.; Messersmith, W.A.; Almuete, V.; Hruban, R.H.; Maitra, A.; Yeo, C.J.; Hidalgo, M. Assessment of celecoxib pharmacodynamics in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(12):3240-3247.

Masayesva, B.G.; Mambo, E.; Taylor, R.J.; Goloubeva, O.G.; Zhou, S.; Cohen, Y.; Minhas, K.; Koch, W.; Sciubba, J.; Alberg, A.J.; Sidransky, D.; Califano, J. Mitochondrial DNA content increase in response to cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Jan;15(1):19-24.

Platz, E.A.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Visvanathan, K.; Rimm, E.B.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.; Giovannucci, E. Statin drugs and risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Dec 20;98(24):1819-1825.

Strouse, J.J.; Cox, C.S.; Melhem, E.R.; Lu, H.; Kraut, M.A.; Razumovsky, A.; Yohay, K.; van Zijl, P.C.; Casella, J.F. Inverse correlation between cerebral blood flow measured by continuous arterial spin-labeling (CASL) MRI and neurocognitive function in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Blood. 2006 Jul 1;108(1):379-381.

Armstrong, A.J.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Ou Yang, Y.C.; Carducci, M.A.; Tannock, I.; de Wit, R.; Eisenberger, M. Prostate-specific antigen and pain surrogacy analysis in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep 1;25(25):3965-3970.

Armstrong, A.J.; Garrett-Mayer, E.S.; Yang, Y.C.; de Wit, R.; Tannock, I.F.; Eisenberger, M. A contemporary prognostic nomogram for men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer: a TAX327 study analysis. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 1;13(21):6396-6403.

Cao, D.; Bromberg, P.A.; Samet, J.M. COX-2 expression induced by diesel particles involves chromatin modification and degradation of HDAC1. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 Aug;37(2):232-239.

Carson, K.A.; Grossman, S.A.; Fisher, J.D.; Shaw, E.G. Prognostic factors for survival in adult patients with recurrent glioma enrolled onto the new approaches to brain tumor therapy CNS consortium phase I and II clinical trials. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007 Jun 20;25(18):2601-2606.

Carter, H.B.; Kettermann, A.; Ferrucci, L.; Landis, P.; Metter, E.J. Prostate-specific antigen velocity risk count assessment: a new concept for detection of life-threatening prostate cancer during window of curability. Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):685-690.

Carter, H.B.; Kettermann, A.; Warlick, C.; Metter, E.J.; Landis, P.; Walsh, P.C.; Epstein, J.I. Expectant management of prostate cancer with curative intent: an update of the Johns Hopkins experience. J Urol. 2007 Dec;178(6):2359-2364; discussion 2364-2355.

Daugherty, S.E.; Shugart, Y.Y.; Platz, E.A.; Fallin, M.D.; Isaacs, W.B.; Pfeiffer, R.M.; Welch, R.; Huang, W.Y.; Reding, D.; Hayes, R.B. Polymorphic variants in alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase and prostate cancer. Prostate. 2007 Oct 1;67(14):1487-1497.

Donawho, C.K.; Luo, Y.; Luo, Y.; Penning, T.D.; Bauch, J.L.; Bouska, J.J.; Bontcheva-Diaz, V.D.; Cox, B.F.; DeWeese, T.L.; Dillehay, L.E.; Ferguson, D.C.; Ghoreishi-Haack, N.S.; Grimm, D.R.; Guan, R.; Han, E.K.; Holley-Shanks, R.R.; Hristov, B.; Idler, K.B.; Jarvis, K.; Johnson, E.F.; Kleinberg, L.R.; Klinghofer, V.; Lasko, L.M.; Liu, X.; Marsh, K.C.; McGonigal, T.P.; Meulbroek, J.A.; Olson, A.M.; Palma, J.P.; Rodriguez, L.E.; Shi, Y.; Stavropoulos, J.A.; Tsurutani, A.C.; Zhu, G.D.; Rosenberg, S.H.; Giranda, V.L.; Frost, D.J. ABT-888, an orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that potentiates DNA-damaging agents in preclinical tumor models. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2007 May 1;13(9):2728-2737.

Fukuda, R.; Zhang, H.; Kim, J.W.; Shimoda, L.; Dang, C.V.; Semenza, G.L. HIF-1 regulates cytochrome oxidase subunits to optimize efficiency of respiration in hypoxic cells. Cell. 2007 Apr 6;129(1):111-122.

Gallicchio, L.; Visvanathan, K.; Burke, A.; Hoffman, S.C.; Helzlsouer, K.J. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of developing breast cancer in a population-based prospective cohort study in Washington County, MD. Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 1;121(1):211-215.

Giovannucci, E.; Liu, Y.; Platz, E.A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C. Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow-up study. Int J Cancer. 2007 Oct 1;121(7):1571-1578.

Goss, P.E.; Ingle, J.N.; Martino, S.; Robert, N.J.; Muss, H.B.; Piccart, M.J.; Castiglione, M.; Tu, D.; Shepherd, L.E.; Pritchard, K.I.; Livingston, R.B.; Davidson, N.E.; Norton, L.; Perez, E.A.; Abrams, J.S.; Cameron, D.A.; Palmer, M.J.; Pater, J.L. Efficacy of letrozole extended adjuvant therapy according to estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of the primary tumor: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MA.17. J Clin Oncol. 2007 May 20;25(15):2006-2011.

Heath, E.I.; Canto, M.I.; Piantadosi, S.; Montgomery, E.; Weinstein, W.M.; Herman, J.G.; Dannenberg, A.J.; Yang, V.W.; Shar, A.O.; Hawk, E.; Forastiere, A.A. Secondary chemoprevention of Barrett's esophagus with celecoxib: results of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Apr 4;99(7):545-557.

Huang, H.Y.; Thuita, L.; Strickland, P.; Hoffman, S.C.; Comstock, G.W.; Helzlsouer, K.J. Frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating inflammatory responses in a community-based population. BMC genetics. 2007;8:7.

Kibel, A.S.; Rosenbaum, E.; Kattan, M.W.; Picus, J.; Dreicer, R.; Klein, E.A.; Chatta, G.S.; Nelson, J.B.; DiPaola, R.S.; Roth, B.J.; Cookson, M.S.; Wilding, G.; Jarrard, D.F.; Beer, T.M.; Ryan, C.W.; Petrylak, D.P.; Benson, M.C.; Partin, A.W.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Eisenberger, M.A. Adjuvant weekly docetaxel for patients with high risk prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: a multi-institutional pilot study. J Urol. 2007 May;177(5):1777-1781.

Kirk, G.D.; Merlo, C.; P, O.D.; Mehta, S.H.; Galai, N.; Vlahov, D.; Samet, J.; Engels, E.A. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 1;45(1):103-110.

Magheli, A.; Rais-Bahrami, S.; Carter, H.B.; Peck, H.J.; Epstein, J.I.; Gonzalgo, M.L. Subclassification of clinical stage T1 prostate cancer: impact on biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 1):1277-1280; discussion 1280-1271.

Magheli, A.; Rais-Bahrami, S.; Humphreys, E.B.; Peck, H.J.; Trock, B.J.; Gonzalgo, M.L. Impact of patient age on biochemical recurrence rates following radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2007 Nov;178(5):1933-1937; discussion 1937-1938.

Netski, D.M.; Mosbruger, T.; Astemborski, J.; Mehta, S.H.; Thomas, D.L.; Cox, A.L. CD4+ T cell-dependent reduction in hepatitis C virus-specific humoral immune responses after HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;195(6):857-863.

Rohrmann, S.; Platz, E.A.; Kavanaugh, C.J.; Thuita, L.; Hoffman, S.C.; Helzlsouer, K.J. Meat and dairy consumption and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in a US cohort study. Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Feb;18(1):41-50.

Stasinopoulos, I.; O'Brien, D.R.; Wildes, F.; Glunde, K.; Bhujwalla, Z.M. Silencing of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits metastasis and delays tumor onset of poorly differentiated metastatic breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2007 May;5(5):435-442.

Stephenson, A.J.; Scardino, P.T.; Kattan, M.W.; Pisansky, T.M.; Slawin, K.M.; Klein, E.A.; Anscher, M.S.; Michalski, J.M.; Sandler, H.M.; Lin, D.W.; Forman, J.D.; Zelefsky, M.J.; Kestin, L.L.; Roehrborn, C.G.; Catton, C.N.; DeWeese, T.L.; Liauw, S.L.; Valicenti, R.K.; Kuban, D.A.; Pollack, A. Predicting the outcome of salvage radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 May 20;25(15):2035-2041.

Tesfaye, A.; Di Cello, F.; Hillion, J.; Ronnett, B.M.; Elbahloul, O.; Ashfaq, R.; Dhara, S.; Prochownik, E.; Tworkoski, K.; Reeves, R.; Roden, R.; Ellenson, L.H.; Huso, D.L.; Resar, L.M. The high-mobility group A1 gene up-regulates cyclooxygenase 2 expression in uterine tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2007 May 1;67(9):3998-4004.

Wilcox, R.A., and L. Chen. CD137 [athway in innate and adaptive immunity. In: Khare, S., editor, TNF Superfamily. Austin,TX: R.G. Landes Bioscience Co.; 2007. p. 85-97.

Woo, J.H.; Li, D.; Wilsbach, K.; Orita, H.; Coulter, J.; Tully, E.; Kwon, T.K.; Xu, S.; Gabrielson, E. Coix Seed Extract, a Commonly Used Treatment for Cancer in China, Inhibits NFkappaB and Protein Kinase C Signaling. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Oct 13;6(12).

Yu, H.H.; Song, D.Y.; Tsai, Y.Y.; Thompson, T.; Frassica, D.A.; DeWeese, T.L. Perineural invasion affects biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy. Urology. 2007 Jul;70(1):111-116.

Balagopal, A.; Philp, F.H.; Astemborski, J.; Block, T.M.; Mehta, A.; Long, R.; Kirk, G.D.; Mehta, S.H.; Cox, A.L.; Thomas, D.L.; Ray, S.C. Human immunodeficiency virus-related microbial translocation and progression of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jul;135(1):226-233.

Barnes, E.; Salio, M.; Cerundolo, V.; Francesco, L.; Pardoll, D.; Klenerman, P.; Cox, A. Monocyte derived dendritic cells retain their functional capacity in patients following infection with hepatitis C virus. J Viral Hepat. 2008 Mar;15(3):219-228.

Barone, B.B.; Yeh, H.C.; Snyder, C.F.; Peairs, K.S.; Stein, K.B.; Derr, R.L.; Wolff, A.C.; Brancati, F.L. Long-term all-cause mortality in cancer patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008 Dec 17;300(23):2754-2764.

Chen, J.; Ruczinski, I.; Jorgensen, T.J.; Yenokyan, G.; Yao, Y.; Alani, R.; Liegeois, N.J.; Hoffman, S.C.; Hoffman-Bolton, J.; Strickland, P.T.; Helzlsouer, K.J.; Alberg, A.J. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk for subsequent malignancy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Sep 3;100(17):1215-1222.

Cho, N.L.; Redston, M.; Zauber, A.G.; Carothers, A.M.; Hornick, J.; Wilton, A.; Sontag, S.; Nishioka, N.; Giardiello, F.M.; Saltzman, J.R.; Gostout, C.; Eagle, C.J.; Hawk, E.T.; Bertagnolli, M.M. Aberrant crypt foci in the adenoma prevention with celecoxib trial. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa. 2008 Jun;1(1):21-31.

Di Cello, F.; Hillion, J.; Kowalski, J.; Ronnett, B.M.; Aderinto, A.; Huso, D.L.; Resar, L.M. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors block uterine tumorigenesis in HMGA1a transgenic mice and human xenografts. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jul;7(7):2090-2095.

Fakhry, C.; Westra, W.H.; Li, S.; Cmelak, A.; Ridge, J.A.; Pinto, H.; Forastiere, A.; Gillison, M.L. Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Feb 20;100(4):261-269.

Goss, P.E.; Ingle, J.N.; Pater, J.L.; Martino, S.; Robert, N.J.; Muss, H.B.; Piccart, M.J.; Castiglione, M.; Shepherd, L.E.; Pritchard, K.I.; Livingston, R.B.; Davidson, N.E.; Norton, L.; Perez, E.A.; Abrams, J.S.; Cameron, D.A.; Palmer, M.J.; Tu, D. Late extended adjuvant treatment with letrozole improves outcome in women with early-stage breast cancer who complete 5 years of tamoxifen. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1948-1955.

Grossman, S.A.; Olson, J.; Batchelor, T.; Peereboom, D.; Lesser, G.; Desideri, S.; Ye, X.; Hammour, T.; Supko, J.G.; New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy, C.N.S.C. Effect of phenytoin on celecoxib pharmacokinetics in patients with glioblastoma. Neuro-oncology. 2008 Apr;10(2):190-198.

Hamilton, R.J.; Goldberg, K.C.; Platz, E.A.; Freedland, S.J. The influence of statin medications on prostate-specific antigen levels. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Nov 5;100(21):1511-1518.

Hao, Y.; Xie, T.; Korotcov, A.; Zhou, Y.; Pang, X.; Shan, L.; Ji, H.; Sridhar, R.; Wang, P.; Califano, J.; Gu, X. Salvianolic acid B inhibits growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivovia cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptotic pathways. Int J Cancer. 2008 Nov 19.

Isharwal, S.; Miller, M.C.; Epstein, J.I.; Mangold, L.A.; Humphreys, E.; Partin, A.W.; Veltri, R.W. Prognostic value of Her-2/neu and DNA index for progression, metastasis and prostate cancer-specific death in men with long-term follow-up after radical prostatectomy. Int J Cancer. 2008 Dec 1;123(11):2636-2643.

Isharwal, S.; Miller, M.C.; Marlow, C.; Makarov, D.V.; Partin, A.W.; Veltri, R.W. p300 (histone acetyltransferase) biomarker predicts prostate cancer biochemical recurrence and correlates with changes in epithelia nuclear size and shape. Prostate. 2008 Jul 1;68(10):1097-1104.

Makarov, D.V.; Humphreys, E.B.; Mangold, L.A.; Carducci, M.A.; Partin, A.W.; Eisenberger, M.A.; Walsh, P.C.; Trock, B.J. The natural history of men treated with deferred androgen deprivation therapy in whom metastatic prostate cancer developed following radical prostatectomy. J Urol. 2008 Jan;179(1):156-161; discussion 161-152.

Meguid, R.A.; Slidell, M.B.; Wolfgang, C.L.; Chang, D.C.; Ahuja, N. Is there a difference in survival between right- versus left-sided colon cancers? Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 Sep;15(9):2388-2394.

Muntener, M.; Epstein, J.I.; Hernandez, D.J.; Gonzalgo, M.L.; Mangold, L.; Humphreys, E.; Walsh, P.C.; Partin, A.W.; Nielsen, M.E. Prognostic significance of Gleason score discrepancies between needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2008 Apr;53(4):767-775; discussion 775-766.

Potash, J.B.; Buervenich, S.; Cox, N.J.; Zandi, P.P.; Akula, N.; Steele, J.; Rathe, J.A.; Avramopoulos, D.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Gershon, E.S.; DePaulo, J.R., Jr.; Feinberg, A.P.; McMahon, F.J. Gene-based SNP mapping of a psychotic bipolar affective disorder linkage region on 22q12.3: association with HMG2L1 and TOM1. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Jan 5;147B(1):59-67.

Rutebemberwa, A.; Ray, S.C.; Astemborski, J.; Levine, J.; Liu, L.; Dowd, K.A.; Clute, S.; Wang, C.; Korman, A.; Sette, A.; Sidney, J.; Pardoll, D.M.; Cox, A.L. High-programmed death-1 levels on hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral persistence and require preservation of cognate antigen during chronic infection. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15;181(12):8215-8225.

Shar, A.O.; Gaudard, M.A.; Heath, E.I.; Forastiere, A.A.; Yang, V.W.; Sontag, S.J. Quantitative endoscopy in the chemoprevention of Barrett's Esophagus Trial. Dis Esophagus. 2008;21(7):641-644.

Stasinopoulos, I.; Mori, N.; Bhujwalla, Z.M. The malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells is reduced by COX-2 silencing. Neoplasia. 2008 Nov;10(11):1163-1169.

Veltri, R.W.; Isharwal, S.; Miller, M.C.; Epstein, J.I.; Mangold, L.A.; Humphreys, E.; Partin, A.W. Long-term assessment of prostate cancer progression free survival: evaluation of pathological parameters, nuclear shape and molecular biomarkers of pathogenesis. Prostate. 2008 Dec 1;68(16):1806-1815.

Wilcox, A.J.; Savitz, D.A.; Samet, J.M. A tale of two toxicants: lessons from minamata and liaoning. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass. 2008 Jan;19(1):1-2.

Wolfl, M.; Rutebemberwa, A.; Mosbruger, T.; Mao, Q.; Li, H.M.; Netski, D.; Ray, S.C.; Pardoll, D.; Sidney, J.; Sette, A.; Allen, T.; Kuntzen, T.; Kavanagh, D.G.; Kuball, J.; Greenberg, P.D.; Cox, A.L. Hepatitis C virus immune escape via exploitation of a hole in the T cell repertoire. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 1;181(9):6435-6446.

Zhao, K.H.; Hernandez, D.J.; Han, M.; Humphreys, E.B.; Mangold, L.A.; Partin, A.W. External validation of University of California, San Francisco, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score. Urology. 2008 Aug;72(2):396-400.

Antonarakis, E.S.; Heath, E.I.; Walczak, J.R.; Nelson, W.G.; Fedor, H.; De Marzo, A.M.; Zahurak, M.L.; Piantadosi, S.; Dannenberg, A.J.; Gurganus, R.T.; Baker, S.D.; Parnes, H.L.; DeWeese, T.L.; Partin, A.W.; Carducci, M.A. Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of neoadjuvant celecoxib in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: evaluation of drug-specific biomarkers. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct 20;27(30):4986-4993.

Chang, C.L.; Ma, B.; Pang, X.; Wu, T.C.; Hung, C.F. Treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors enables repeated administration of vaccinia virus for control of ovarian cancer. Mol Ther. 2009 Aug;17(8):1365-1372.

Chang, E.T.; Birmann, B.M.; Kasperzyk, J.L.; Conti, D.V.; Kraft, P.; Ambinder, R.F.; Zheng, T.; Mueller, N.E. Polymorphic variation in NFKB1 and other aspirin-related genes and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar;18(3):976-986.

Dowd, K.A.; Netski, D.M.; Wang, X.H.; Cox, A.L.; Ray, S.C. Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology. 2009 Jun;136(7):2377-2386.

Gallicchio, L.; Chang, H.H.; Christo, D.K.; Thuita, L.; Huang, H.Y.; Strickland, P.; Ruczinski, I.; Clipp, S.; Helzlsouer, K.J. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a prospective cohort study. BMC medical genetics. 2009;10:103.

Jorgensen, T.J.; Helzlsouer, K.J.; Clipp, S.C.; Bolton, J.H.; Crum, R.M.; Visvanathan, K. DNA repair gene variants associated with benign breast disease in high cancer risk women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jan;18(1):346-350.

Loeb, S.; Carter, H.B.; Walsh, P.C.; Isaacs, W.B.; Kettermann, A.; Tanaka, T.; Ferrucci, L.; Metter, E.J. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and the likelihood of prostate cancer at a given prostate specific antigen level. J Urol. 2009 Jul;182(1):101-104; discussion 105.

Loeb, S.; Epstein, J.I.; Humphreys, E.B.; Walsh, P.C. Does perineural invasion on prostate biopsy predict adverse prostatectomy outcomes? BJU Int. 2009 Aug 19.

Makarov, D.V.; Isharwal, S.; Sokoll, L.J.; Landis, P.; Marlow, C.; Epstein, J.I.; Partin, A.W.; Carter, H.B.; Veltri, R.W. Pro-prostate-specific antigen measurements in serum and tissue are associated with treatment necessity among men enrolled in expectant management for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Dec 1;15(23):7316-7321.

Mikhaylova, M.; Stasinopoulos, I.; Kato, Y.; Artemov, D.; Bhujwalla, Z.M. Imaging of cationic multifunctional liposome-mediated delivery of COX-2 siRNA. Cancer Gene Ther. 2009 Mar;16(3):217-226.

Mondul, A.M.; Clipp, S.L.; Helzlsouer, K.J.; Platz, E.A. Association between plasma total cholesterol concentration and incident prostate cancer in the CLUE II cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct 6.

Nagai, N.; Thimmulappa, R.K.; Cano, M.; Fujihara, M.; Izumi-Nagai, K.; Kong, X.; Sporn, M.B.; Kensler, T.W.; Biswal, S.; Handa, J.T. Nrf2 is a critical modulator of the innate immune response in a model of uveitis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Aug 1;47(3):300-306.

Nathan, H.; Raut, C.P.; Thornton, K.; Herman, J.M.; Ahuja, N.; Schulick, R.D.; Choti, M.A.; Pawlik, T.M. Predictors of survival after resection of retroperitoneal sarcoma: a population-based analysis and critical appraisal of the AJCC staging system. Ann Surg. 2009 Dec;250(6):970-976.

Osburn, W.O.; Fisher, B.E.; Dowd, K.A.; Urban, G.; Liu, L.; Ray, S.C.; Thomas, D.L.; Cox, A.L. Spontaneous Control of Primary Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Immunity Against Persistent Reinfection. Gastroenterology. 2009 Sep 24.

Paramsothy, P.; Jamieson, D.J.; Heilig, C.M.; Schuman, P.C.; Klein, R.S.; Shah, K.V.; Rompalo, A.M.; Cu-Uvin, S.; Duerr, A. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus clearance and cervical cytology. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jan;113(1):26-31.

Rosenzweig, C.N.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.; Sokoll, L.J.; Osborne, K.; Partin, A.W.; Chan, D.W. Predicting prostate cancer biochemical recurrence using a panel of serum proteomic biomarkers. J Urol. 2009 Mar;181(3):1407-1414.

Shar, A.O.; Gaudard, M.A.; Heath, E.I.; Forastiere, A.A.; Yang, V.W.; Sontag, S.J. Modeling using baseline characteristics in a small multicenter clinical trial for Barrett's esophagus. Contemporary clinical trials. 2009 Jan;30(1):2-7.

Stasinopoulos, I.; O'Brien, D.R.; Bhujwalla, Z.M. Inflammation, but not hypoxia, mediated HIF-1alpha activation depends on COX-2. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Jan;8(1):31-35.

Torio, C.M.; Klassen, A.C.; Curriero, F.C.; Caballero, B.; Helzlsouer, K. The Modifying Effect of Social Class on the Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Incidence. Am J Public Health. 2009 Jan 15.

Tosoian, J.J.; Loeb, S.; Kettermann, A.; Landis, P.; Elliot, D.J.; Epstein, J.I.; Partin, A.W.; Carter, H.B.; Sokoll, L.J. Accuracy of PCA3 Measurement in Predicting Short-Term Biopsy Progression in an Active Surveillance Program. J Urol. 2009 Dec 12.

Wiklund, F.E.; Adami, H.O.; Zheng, S.L.; Stattin, P.; Isaacs, W.B.; Gronberg, H.; Xu, J. Established prostate cancer susceptibility variants are not associated with disease outcome. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 May;18(5):1659-1662.

Antonarakis, E.S.; Chen, Y.; Elsamanoudi, S.I.; Brassell, S.A.; Da Rocha, M.V.; Eisenberger, M.A.; McLeod, D.G. Long-term overall survival and metastasis-free survival for men with prostate-specific antigen-recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy: analysis of the Center for Prostate Disease Research National Database. BJU Int. 2010 Nov 23.

Burke, K.P.; Cox, A.L. Hepatitis C virus evasion of adaptive immune responses: a model for viral persistence. Immunol Res. 2010 Jul;47(1-3):216-227.

Chavez-Macgregor, M.; Litton, J.; Chen, H.; Giordano, S.H.; Hudis, C.A.; Wolff, A.C.; Valero, V.; Hortobagyi, G.N.; Bondy, M.L.; Gonzalez-Angulo, A.M. Pathologic complete response in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy: evaluating the effect of race/ethnicity. Cancer. 2010 Sep 1;116(17):4168-4177.

Dahlberg, S.E.; Sandler, A.B.; Brahmer, J.R.; Schiller, J.H.; Johnson, D.H. Clinical course of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients experiencing hypertension during treatment with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel on ECOG 4599. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 20;28(6):949-954.

Frangakis, C.; Geschwind, J.F.; Kim, D.; Chen, Y.; Koteish, A.; Hong, K.; Liapi, E.; Georgiades, C.S. Chemoembolization Decreases Drop-Off Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients on the Liver Transplant List. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010 Dec 30.

Frazier, J.L.; Batra, S.; Kapor, S.; Vellimana, A.; Gandhi, R.; Carson, K.A.; Shokek, O.; Lim, M.; Kleinberg, L.; Rigamonti, D. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of brain metastases: an institutional retrospective analysis of survival. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2010;76(5):1486-1492.

Fwu, C.W.; Chien, Y.C.; Nelson, K.E.; Kirk, G.D.; You, S.L.; Kuo, H.S.; Feinleib, M.; Chen, C.J. Mortality after chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a linkage study involving 2 million parous women from Taiwan. J Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 1;201(7):1016-1023.

Golden-Mason, L.; Cox, A.L.; Randall, J.A.; Cheng, L.; Rosen, H.R. Increased natural killer cell cytotoxicity and NKp30 expression protects against hepatitis C virus infection in high-risk individuals and inhibits replication in vitro. Hepatology. 2010 Nov;52(5):1581-1589.

Guzzo, T.J.; Dluzniewski, P.; Orosco, R.; Platz, E.A.; Partin, A.W.; Han, M. Prediction of mortality after radical prostatectomy by Charlson comorbidity index. Urology. 2010 Sep;76(3):553-557.

Horowitz, D.P.; Hsu, C.C.; Wang, J.; Makary, M.A.; Winter, J.M.; Robinson, R.; Schulick, R.D.; Cameron, J.L.; Pawlik, T.M.; Herman, J.M. Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Elderly Patients with Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Jul 17;Epub ahead of print.

Hsu, C.C.; Herman, J.M.; Corsini, M.M.; Winter, J.M.; Callister, M.D.; Haddock, M.G.; Cameron, J.L.; Pawlik, T.M.; Schulick, R.D.; Wolfgang, C.L.; Laheru, D.A.; Farnell, M.B.; Swartz, M.J.; Gunderson, L.L.; Miller, R.C. Adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: the Johns Hopkins Hospital-Mayo Clinic collaborative study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Apr;17(4):981-990.

Li, M.; Gray, W.; Zhang, H.; Chung, C.H.; Billheimer, D.; Yarbrough, W.G.; Liebler, D.C.; Shyr, Y.; Slebos, R.J. Comparative shotgun proteomics using spectral count data and quasi-likelihood modeling. J Proteome Res. 2010 Aug 6;9(8):4295-4305.

Liu, L.; Fisher, B.E.; Dowd, K.A.; Astemborski, J.; Cox, A.L.; Ray, S.C. Acceleration of hepatitis C virus envelope evolution in humans is consistent with progressive humoral immune selection during the transition from acute to chronic infection. J Virol. 2010 May;84(10):5067-5077.

Mayo, S.C.; de Jong, M.C.; Pulitano, C.; Clary, B.M.; Reddy, S.K.; Gamblin, T.C.; Celinksi, S.A.; Kooby, D.A.; Staley, C.A.; Stokes, J.B.; Chu, C.K.; Ferrero, A.; Schulick, R.D.; Choti, M.A.; Mentha, G.; Strub, J.; Bauer, T.W.; Adams, R.B.; Aldrighetti, L.; Capussotti, L.; Pawlik, T.M. Surgical management of hepatic neuroendocrine tumor metastasis: results from an international multi-institutional analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Dec;17(12):3129-3136.

Meguid, R.A.; Hooker, C.M.; Harris, J.; Xu, L.; Westra, W.H.; Sherwood, J.T.; Sussman, M.; Cattaneo, S.M., 2nd; Shin, J.; Cox, S.; Christensen, J.; Prints, Y.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, J.; Yang, S.C.; Brock, M.V. Long-term survival outcomes by smoking status in surgical and nonsurgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer: comparing never smokers and current smokers. Chest. 2010 Sep;138(3):500-509.

Mondul, A.M.; Clipp, S.L.; Helzlsouer, K.J.; Platz, E.A. Association between plasma total cholesterol concentration and incident prostate cancer in the CLUE II cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jan;21(1):61-68.

Murtola, T.J.; Tammela, T.L.; Maattanen, L.; Huhtala, H.; Platz, E.A.; Ala-Opas, M.; Stenman, U.H.; Auvinen, A. Prostate cancer and PSA among statin users in the Finnish prostate cancer screening trial. Int J Cancer. 2010 Oct 1;127(7):1650-1659.

Nathan, H.; de Jong, M.C.; Pulitano, C.; Ribero, D.; Strub, J.; Mentha, G.; Gigot, J.F.; Schulick, R.D.; Choti, M.A.; Aldrighetti, L.; Capussotti, L.; Pawlik, T.M. Conditional survival after surgical resection of colorectal liver metastasis: an international multi-institutional analysis of 949 patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2010 May;210(5):755-764, 764-756.

Nichols, A.C.; Finkelstein, D.M.; Faquin, W.C.; Westra, W.H.; Mroz, E.A.; Kneuertz, P.; Begum, S.; Michaud, W.A.; Busse, P.M.; Clark, J.R.; Rocco, J.W. Bcl2 and human papilloma virus 16 as predictors of outcome following concurrent chemoradiation for advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Apr 1;16(7):2138-2146.

Omura, N.; Griffith, M.; Vincent, A.; Li, A.; Hong, S.M.; Walter, K.; Borges, M.; Goggins, M. Cyclooxygenase-deficient pancreatic cancer cells use exogenous sources of prostaglandins. Mol Cancer Res. 2010 Jun;8(6):821-832.

Osburn, W.O.; Fisher, B.E.; Dowd, K.A.; Urban, G.; Liu, L.; Ray, S.C.; Thomas, D.L.; Cox, A.L. Spontaneous control of primary hepatitis C virus infection and immunity against persistent reinfection. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jan;138(1):315-324.

Pierorazio, P.M.; Ferrucci, L.; Kettermann, A.; Longo, D.L.; Metter, E.J.; Carter, H.B. Serum testosterone is associated with aggressive prostate cancer in older men: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BJU Int. 2010 Sep 14;105(6):824-829.

Poultsides, G.A.; Reddy, S.; Cameron, J.L.; Hruban, R.H.; Pawlik, T.M.; Ahuja, N.; Jain, A.; Edil, B.H.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A.; Schulick, R.D.; Wolfgang, C.L. Histopathologic basis for the favorable survival after resection of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-associated invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Surg. 2010 Mar;251(3):470-476.

Towler, W.I.; James, M.M.; Ray, S.C.; Wang, L.; Donnell, D.; Mwatha, A.; Guay, L.; Nakabiito, C.; Musoke, P.; Jackson, J.B.; Eshleman, S.H. Analysis of HIV diversity using a high-resolution melting assay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Aug;26(8):913-918.

Xue, X.; Gange, S.J.; Zhong, Y.; Burk, R.D.; Minkoff, H.; Massad, L.S.; Watts, D.H.; Kuniholm, M.H.; Anastos, K.; Levine, A.M.; Fazzari, M.; D'Souza, G.; Plankey, M.; Palefsky, J.M.; Strickler, H.D. Marginal and mixed-effects models in the analysis of human papillomavirus natural history data. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Jan;19(1):159-169.

Yatsuya, H.; Yamagishi, K.; North, K.E.; Brancati, F.L.; Stevens, J.; Folsom, A.R. Associations of obesity measures with subtypes of ischemic stroke in the ARIC Study. J Epidemiol. 2010;20(5):347-354.

Zhao, Y.; Hao, Y.; Ji, H.; Fang, Y.; Guo, Y.; Sha, W.; Zhou, Y.; Pang, X.; Southerland, W.M.; Califano, J.A.; Gu, X. Combination effects of salvianolic acid B with low-dose celecoxib on inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Jun;3(6):787-796.


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