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Researchers at Johns Hopkins report they have identified a protein that enables a toxic natural aggregate to spread from cell to cell in a mammal’s brain — and a way to block that protein’s action.
Scientists report that a specialized drug screen test using lab-grown human cells has revealed two classes of compounds already in the pharmaceutical arsenal that may work against mosquito-borne Zika virus infections.
Johns Hopkins neuroscientists believe they have figured out how some mammals’ brains — in this case, rats — solve certain navigational problems. If there’s a “reward” at the end of the trip, like the chocolatey drink used in their study, specialized neurons in the hippocampus of the brain “replay” the route taken to get it, but backward. And the greater the reward, the more often the rats’ brains replay it.
Using a novel, newly developed mouse model that mimics the development of Alzheimer’s disease in humans, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have been able to determine that a one-two punch of major biological “insults” must occur in the brain to cause the dementia that is the hallmark of the disease. A description of their experiments is published online in the journal Nature Communications.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have gleaned two important new clues in the fight against Parkinson’s disease: that blocking an enzyme called c-Abl prevents the disease in specially bred mice, and that a chemical tag on a second protein may signal the disorder’s presence and progression.
In a proof-of-principle study, a team of physicians and bioinformatics experts at Johns Hopkins reports they were able to diagnose or rule out suspected brain infections using so called next-generation genetic sequencing of brain tissue samples.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins report that a type of lab-grown human nerve cells can partner with heart muscle cells to stimulate contractions. Because the heart-thumping nerve cells were derived from induced pluripotent stem cells that in turn were made from human skin cells, the researchers believe the cells — known as sympathetic nerve cells — will be an aid in studying disorders that affect the nervous system — that is, scientists will be able to grow nerve cells in the lab that replicate particular patients’ diseases.
Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report they have developed an experimental laboratory test that accurately clocks the “speed” of human brain tumor cell movement along a small glass “track.” The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma patients, has the potential, they say, to predict how quickly and aggressively a given cancer might lethally spread.
Studying fruit flies, whose sleep is remarkably similar to that in people, Johns Hopkins researchers say they’ve identified brain cells that are responsible for why delaying bedtime creates chronic sleepiness.
Alan R. Cohen, M.D., has been named the new chief of Johns Hopkins Medicine’s Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery and holder of the Benjamin S. Carson Sr., M.D., and Dr. Evelyn Spiro, R.N., Professorship in Pediatric Neurosurgery.
Argye Hillis, M.D., a professor of neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is serving on a team of researchers from several institutions who will use an $11 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study stroke recovery.
Results of a small study of people with tingling pain in their hands and feet have added to evidence that so-called prediabetes is more damaging to motor nerves than once believed, in a report on the study published online in JAMA Neurology on April 11.
Johns Hopkins scientists report they have developed an antibody against a specific cellular gateway that suppresses lung tumor cell growth and breast cancer metastasis in transplanted tumor experiments in mice, according to a new study published in the February issue of Nature Communications.
In a small clinical study with an anticancer drug that halts blood vessel growth, a handful of people with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and hearing loss had restoration of hearing. Results of the collaborative study by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine, the National Institutes of Health and Massachusetts General Hospital were described online March 14 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Working with lab-grown human stem cells, a team of researchers suspect they have discovered how the Zika virus probably causes microcephaly in fetuses. The virus selectively infects cells that form the brain’s cortex, or outer layer, making them more likely to die and less likely to divide normally and make new brain cells.
In a small, placebo-controlled clinical trial, Johns Hopkins physicians report that the antidepressant paroxetine modestly improves decision-making and reaction time, and suppresses inflammation in people with HIV-associated cognitive impairment.
Reporting on the results of a phase III international clinical trial, Johns Hopkins Medicine physicians say use of a cardiac clot-busting drug to treat strokes that cause brain bleeding safely decreased the death rate in patients by 10 percent, compared to a control group receiving saline.
Physicians and biomedical engineers from Johns Hopkins report what they believe is the first successful effort to wiggle fingers individually and independently of each other using a mind-controlled artificial “arm” to control the movement.
Using mice whose front paws were still partly disabled after an initial induced stroke, Johns Hopkins researchers report that inducing a second stroke nearby in their brains let them “rehab” the animals to successfully grab food pellets with those paws at pre-stroke efficiency.
Taking a high dose of vitamin D3 is safe for people with multiple sclerosis and may help regulate the body’s hyperactive immune response, according to a pilot study published by Johns Hopkins physicians in the Dec. 30 online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
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