Search the Health Library
Get the facts on diseases, conditions, tests and procedures.
I Want To...
I Want To...
Find Research Faculty
Enter the last name, specialty or keyword for your search below.
School of Medicine
I Want to...
Causes of nerve injuries
Injury to the peripheral nerves can occur through a variety of trauma. Common causes of nerve injuries include:
- Focal contusion (gunshot wounds)
- Stretch/traction injury
- Drug injection injury
- Electrical injury
Nerve injuries we treat:
- Brachial plexus injury (injury to the brachial plexus nerve)
- Foot drop injury (injury to the peroneal nerve and sciatic nerve)
- Meralgia paresthetica (injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and femoral nerve)
- Spinal accessory nerve injury (injury to the spinal accessory nerve and cranial nerve)
- Traumatic nerve injury
Diagnosis of a nerve injury
Sunderland Classification System
Your doctor will need to determine the exact location and severity of the nerve injury. A classification system called the Sunderland Classification system divides nerve injuries into five parts. These include:
- First-degree injury: A reversible local conduction block at the site of the injury. This injury does not require surgical intervention and usually will recover within a matter hours to a few weeks.
- Second-degree injury: There is a loss of continuity of the axons or electrical wires within the nerve. If this kind of injury can be confirmed through pre-operative nerve testing, surgical intervention is usually not required.
- Third-degree injury: There is damage to the axons and their supporting structures within the nerve. In this case, recovery is variable. Intra-operative nerve conduction studies are often able to help predict outcome and need for simple cleaning of the nerve (neurolysis) or a more extensive repair with grafting.
- Fourth-degree injury: In this case, there is damage to the axons and the surrounding tissues sufficient to create scarring that prevents nerve regeneration. Intra-operative electrical testing confirms that no electrical energy can be passed along the neural pathways in this injured nerve. Surgical intervention with nerve grafting is necessary to repair the damage.
- Fifth-degree injury: These injuries are usually found in laceration or severe stretch injuries. The nerve is divided into two. The only way to repair a fifth-degree injury is through surgery.
In order to fully determine the extent of the damage to the nerve, your doctor may order an EMG / NCV, an electrical conduction test to determine the passage of electrical currents through the nerves. These tests are sometimes done during actual surgery while the patient is sedated.
Your doctor may also order any of the following imaging techniques:
- CT scan
- MRI Neurography
Treatment for nerve injuries
Nonsurgical treatment for nerve injuries
Nonsurgical treatment for nerve injuries may include:
- Massage therapy
- Physical therapy and rehabilitation
- Weight loss management
Learn more about nonsurgical treatment for peripheral nerve injuries.
Surgery for nerve injuries
The goal of surgical repair is to repair the nerves so that function is restored to the area. Depending on the type and severity of the injury, your doctor will discuss different methods of nerve repair and create a treatment plan that is appropriate for you. Learn more about surgery for nerve injuries.
Dr. Allan Belzberg is a world-renowned neurosurgeon in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. He treats on average 500 nerve injuries every year and has published research publications focusing on improving surgical repairs of nerve injuries and discovering new treatment options. Catch up on the latest research on nerve injuries.
To make an appointment or request a consultation, contact the Johns Hopkins Peripheral Nerve Surgery Center at 410-614-9923.
Request an Appointment
To request an appointment or refer a patient, please contact the Johns Hopkins Peripheral Nerve Surgery Center at 410-614-9923.
Request an Appointment
Adult Neurology: 410-955-9441
Pediatric Neurology: 410-955-4259
Adult Neurosurgery: 410-955-6406
Pediatric Neurosurgery: 410-955-7337
Already a Patient?
Traveling for Care?
Whether you're crossing the country or the globe, we make it easy to access world-class care at Johns Hopkins.