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Dr. Bert Vogelstein

M.D.
Bert Vogelstein
Interests

Genetic Alterations of Colon Cancer

Titles

Professor of Oncology and Pathology, Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Director, Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics & Therapeutics

Schools\Degrees

M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

Training

Resident in Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of MedicineFellow in Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins school of MedicineResearch Associate, Tumor Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute

The Giants of Science: The Guardian Discusses Vogelstein's Ranking as "The World's Leading Scientist"

Academy of Achievement: Uncovering the Genetic Causes of Cancer

Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Career Highlights

When the Sun Goes Down: Bert "Rockin' Doc" Vogelstein Rocks the Town 

Clinical Interests

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KE8TY0gT--g

 

 

Research Summary

Dr. Vogelstein and his colleagues have demonstrated that human colorectal tumors represent the expansion of a single transformed cell. The initiation of this process is due to mutations in genes controlling the APC/b-catenin pathway. Progress is due to mutations in other genes, such as c-Ki-Ras, p53, and those controlling the responses to TGF-b and related ligands. These mutations occur in a preferred order as the tumor progresses from benign to malignant stages and can occur either through inherited or somatic means. Genetic alterations affecting genetic stability, such as those resulting in mismatch repair defects or aberrant chromosome segregation, can lead to an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations and predisposition to cancer.

Dr. Vogelstein’s current work is devoted to the use of sophisticated molecular genetic methods to probe the function of the genes noted above in colorectal cancer cells. His group has developed powerful methods to disrupt specific genes in colorectal cancer cells for this purpose. Additionally, they have invented new technologies for detecting mutations and used these technologies to improve early cancer detection and diagnosis of hereditary susceptibility. Other research in his laboratory focuses on the design of novel therapeutic agents targeting the epithelial and non-epithelial components of colorectal cancers.

Journal Citations

Bettegowda, C.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Cheong, I.; Kohli, M.; Szabo, S.A.; Zhang, X.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Velculescu, V.E.; Parmigiani, G.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Zhou, S. The genome and transcriptomes of the anti-tumor agent Clostridium novyi-NT. Nat Biotechnol. 2006 Nov 19;24:1573-1580.
Cheong, I.; Huang, X.; Bettegowda, C.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Kinzler, K.W.; Zhou, S.; Vogelstein, B. A bacterial protein enhances the release and efficacy of liposomal cancer drugs. Science. 2006 Nov 24;314(5803):1308-1311.

Cummins, J.M.; He, Y.; Leary, R.J.; Pagliarini, R.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Sjoblom, T.; Barad, O.; Bentwich, Z.; Szafranska, A.E.; Labourier, E.; Raymond, C.K.; Roberts, B.S.; Juhl, H.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E. The colorectal microRNAome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 7;103(10):3687-3692.

Diehl, F.; Li, M.; He, Y.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Dressman, D. BEAMing: single-molecule PCR on microparticles in water-in-oil emulsions. Nat Methods. 2006 Jul;3(7):551-559.

Li, M.; Diehl, F.; Dressman, D.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W. BEAMing up for detection and quantification of rare sequence variants. Nat Methods. 2006 Feb;3(2):95-97.

Nanda, A.; Karim, B.; Peng, Z.; Liu, G.; Qiu, W.; Gan, C.; Vogelstein, B.; St Croix, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Huso, D.L. Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1) functions in the growth and progression of abdominal tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3351-3356.

Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. The role of companion diagnostics in the development and use of mutation-targeted cancer therapies. Nat Biotechnol. 2006 Aug;24(8):985-995.

Sjoblom, T.; Jones, S.; Wood, L.D.; Parsons, D.W.; Lin, J.; Barber, T.D.; Mandelker, D.; Leary, R.J.; Ptak, J.; Silliman, N.; Szabo, S.; Buckhaults, P.; Farrell, C.; Meeh, P.; Markowitz, S.D.; Willis, J.; Dawson, D.; Willson, J.K.; Gazdar, A.F.; Hartigan, J.; Wu, L.; Liu, C.; Parmigiani, G.; Park, B.H.; Bachman, K.E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E. The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-274.

Wood, L.D.; Calhoun, E.S.; Silliman, N.; Ptak, J.; Szabo, S.; Powell, S.M.; Riggins, G.J.; Wang, T.L.; Yan, H.; Gazdar, A.; Kern, S.E.; Pennacchio, L.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E. Somatic mutations of GUCY2F, EPHA3, and NTRK3 in human cancers. Hum Mutat. 2006 Oct;27(10):1060-1061.

Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Foss, C.A.; Thornton, K.; Nimmagadda, S.; Endres, C.J.; Uzuner, O.; Seyler, T.M.; Ulrich, S.D.; Conway, J.; Bettegowda, C.; Agrawal, N.; Cheong, I.; Zhang, X.; Ladenson, P.W.; Vogelstein, B.N.; Mont, M.A.; Zhou, S.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Pomper, M.G. Imaging of musculoskeletal bacterial infections by [124I]FIAU-PET/CT. PLoS One. 2007;2(10):e1007.

Huang, C.H.; Mandelker, D.; Schmidt-Kittler, O.; Samuels, Y.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Gabelli, S.B.; Amzel, L.M. The structure of a human p110alpha/p85alpha complex elucidates the effects of oncogenic PI3Kalpha mutations. Science. 2007 Dec 14;318(5857):1744-1748.

Lin, J.; Gan, C.M.; Zhang, X.; Jones, S.; Sjoblom, T.; Wood, L.D.; Parsons, D.W.; Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Parmigiani, G.; Velculescu, V.E. A multidimensional analysis of genes mutated in breast and colorectal cancers. Genome Res. 2007 Sep;17(9):1304-1318.

Rago, C.; Vogelstein, B.; Bunz, F. Genetic knockouts and knockins in human somatic cells. Nat Protoc. 2007;2(11):2734-2746.

Wood, L.D.; Parsons, D.W.; Jones, S.; Lin, J.; Sjoblom, T.; Leary, R.J.; Shen, D.; Boca, S.M.; Barber, T.; Ptak, J.; Silliman, N.; Szabo, S.; Dezso, Z.; Ustyanksky, V.; Nikolskaya, T.; Nikolsky, Y.; Karchin, R.; Wilson, P.A.; Kaminker, J.S.; Zhang, Z.; Croshaw, R.; Willis, J.; Dawson, D.; Shipitsin, M.; Willson, J.K.; Sukumar, S.; Polyak, K.; Park, B.H.; Pethiyagoda, C.L.; Pant, P.V.; Ballinger, D.G.; Sparks, A.B.; Hartigan, J.; Smith, D.R.; Suh, E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Buckhaults, P.; Markowitz, S.D.; Parmigiani, G.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E.; Vogelstein, B. The genomic landscapes of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1108-1113.

Zhang, X.; Zhao, M.; Rudek, M.A.; He, P.; Vogelstein, B. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of DMXAA in human and mouse plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Jun 1;852(1-2):217-222.

Amzel, L.M.; Huang, C.H.; Mandelker, D.; Lengauer, C.; Gabelli, S.B.; Vogelstein, B. Structural comparisons of class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008 Sep;8(9):665-669.

Barber, T.D.; McManus, K.; Yuen, K.W.; Reis, M.; Parmigiani, G.; Shen, D.; Barrett, I.; Nouhi, Y.; Spencer, F.; Markowitz, S.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Lengauer, C.; Hieter, P. Chromatid cohesion defects may underlie chromosome instability in human colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 4;105(9):3443-3448.

Diehl, F.; Schmidt, K.; Choti, M.A.; Romans, K.; Goodman, S.; Li, M.; Thornton, K.; Agrawal, N.; Sokoll, L.; Szabo, S.A.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Diaz, L.A., Jr. Circulating mutant DNA to assess tumor dynamics. Nat Med. 2008 Sep;14(9):985-990.

Diehl, F.; Schmidt, K.; Durkee, K.H.; Moore, K.J.; Goodman, S.N.; Shuber, A.P.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. Analysis of mutations in DNA isolated from plasma and stool of colorectal cancer patients. Gastroenterology. 2008 Aug;135(2):489-498.

He, Y.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K.W. The antisense transcriptomes of human cells. Science. 2008 Dec 19;322(5909):1855-1857.

Jones, S.; Chen, W.D.; Parmigiani, G.; Diehl, F.; Beerenwinkel, N.; Antal, T.; Traulsen, A.; Nowak, M.A.; Siegel, C.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Willis, J.; Markowitz, S.D. Comparative lesion sequencing provides insights into tumor evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4283-4288.

Jones, S.; Zhang, X.; Parsons, D.W.; Lin, J.C.; Leary, R.J.; Angenendt, P.; Mankoo, P.; Carter, H.; Kamiyama, H.; Jimeno, A.; Hong, S.M.; Fu, B.; Lin, M.T.; Calhoun, E.S.; Kamiyama, M.; Walter, K.; Nikolskaya, T.; Nikolsky, Y.; Hartigan, J.; Smith, D.R.; Hidalgo, M.; Leach, S.D.; Klein, A.P.; Jaffee, E.M.; Goggins, M.; Maitra, A.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.; Eshleman, J.R.; Kern, S.E.; Hruban, R.H.; Karchin, R.; Papadopoulos, N.; Parmigiani, G.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W. Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses. Science. 2008 Sep 26;321(5897):1801-1806.

Leary, R.J.; Lin, J.C.; Cummins, J.; Boca, S.; Wood, L.D.; Parsons, D.W.; Jones, S.; Sjoblom, T.; Park, B.H.; Parsons, R.; Willis, J.; Dawson, D.; Willson, J.K.; Nikolskaya, T.; Nikolsky, Y.; Kopelovich, L.; Papadopoulos, N.; Pennacchio, L.A.; Wang, T.L.; Markowitz, S.D.; Parmigiani, G.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E. Integrated analysis of homozygous deletions, focal amplifications, and sequence alterations in breast and colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 21;105(42):16224-16229.

Parsons, D.W.; Jones, S.; Zhang, X.; Lin, J.C.; Leary, R.J.; Angenendt, P.; Mankoo, P.; Carter, H.; Siu, I.M.; Gallia, G.L.; Olivi, A.; McLendon, R.; Rasheed, B.A.; Keir, S.; Nikolskaya, T.; Nikolsky, Y.; Busam, D.A.; Tekleab, H.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Hartigan, J.; Smith, D.R.; Strausberg, R.L.; Marie, S.K.; Shinjo, S.M.; Yan, H.; Riggins, G.J.; Bigner, D.D.; Karchin, R.; Papadopoulos, N.; Parmigiani, G.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W. An integrated genomic analysis of human glioblastoma multiforme. Science. 2008 Sep 26;321(5897):1807-1812.

Blackford, A.; Parmigiani, G.; Kensler, T.W.; Wolfgang, C.; Jones, S.; Zhang, X.; Parsons, D.W.; Lin, J.C.; Leary, R.J.; Eshleman, J.R.; Goggins, M.; Jaffee, E.M.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A.; Maitra, A.; Klein, A.; Cameron, J.L.; Olino, K.; Schulick, R.; Winter, J.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Hruban, R.H. Genetic mutations associated with cigarette smoking in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 15;69(8):3681-3688.

Blackford, A.; Serrano, O.K.; Wolfgang, C.L.; Parmigiani, G.; Jones, S.; Zhang, X.; Parsons, D.W.; Lin, J.C.; Leary, R.J.; Eshleman, J.R.; Goggins, M.; Jaffee, E.M.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A.; Maitra, A.; Cameron, J.L.; Olino, K.; Schulick, R.; Winter, J.; Herman, J.M.; Laheru, D.; Klein, A.P.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E.; Hruban, R.H. SMAD4 gene mutations are associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 15;15(14):4674-4679.

Carter, H.; Chen, S.; Isik, L.; Tyekucheva, S.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Karchin, R. Cancer-specific high-throughput annotation of somatic mutations: computational prediction of driver missense mutations. Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 15;69(16):6660-6667.

Duncan, C.G.; Leary, R.J.; Lin, J.C.; Cummins, J.; Di, C.; Schaefer, C.F.; Wang, T.L.; Riggins, G.J.; Edwards, J.; Bigner, D.; Kopelovich, L.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E.; Yan, H. Identification of microbial DNA in human cancer. BMC Med Genomics. 2009;2:22.

Gabelli, S.B.; Mandelker, D.; Schmidt-Kittler, O.; Vogelstein, B.; Amzel, L.M. Somatic mutations in PI3Kalpha: Structural basis for enzyme activation and drug design. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Dec 2.

Guda, K.; Moinova, H.; He, J.; Jamison, O.; Ravi, L.; Natale, L.; Lutterbaugh, J.; Lawrence, E.; Lewis, S.; Willson, J.K.; Lowe, J.B.; Wiesner, G.L.; Parmigiani, G.; Barnholtz-Sloan, J.; Dawson, D.W.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Papadopoulos, N.; Vogelstein, B.; Willis, J.; Gerken, T.A.; Markowitz, S.D. Inactivating germ-line and somatic mutations in polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 12 in human colon cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 4;106(31):12921-12925.

Jones, S.; Hruban, R.H.; Kamiyama, M.; Borges, M.; Zhang, X.; Parsons, D.W.; Lin, J.C.; Palmisano, E.; Brune, K.; Jaffee, E.M.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A.; Maitra, A.; Parmigiani, G.; Kern, S.E.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Eshleman, J.R.; Goggins, M.; Klein, A.P. Exomic sequencing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene. Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):217.

Li, M.; Chen, W.D.; Papadopoulos, N.; Goodman, S.N.; Bjerregaard, N.C.; Laurberg, S.; Levin, B.; Juhl, H.; Arber, N.; Moinova, H.; Durkee, K.; Schmidt, K.; He, Y.; Diehl, F.; Velculescu, V.E.; Zhou, S.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Kinzler, K.W.; Markowitz, S.D.; Vogelstein, B. Sensitive digital quantification of DNA methylation in clinical samples. Nat Biotechnol. 2009 Sep;27(9):858-863.

Mandelker, D.; Gabelli, S.B.; Schmidt-Kittler, O.; Zhu, J.; Cheong, I.; Huang, C.H.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Amzel, L.M. A frequent kinase domain mutation that changes the interaction between PI3Kalpha and the membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 6;106(40):16996-17001.

Parmigiani, G.; Boca, S.; Lin, J.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.; Vogelstein, B. Design and analysis issues in genome-wide somatic mutation studies of cancer. Genomics. 2009 Jan;93(1):17-21.

Sur, S.; Pagliarini, R.; Bunz, F.; Rago, C.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Papadopoulos, N. A panel of isogenic human cancer cells suggests a therapeutic approach for cancers with inactivated p53. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(10):3964-3969.

Yan, H.; Parsons, D.W.; Jin, G.; McLendon, R.; Rasheed, B.A.; Yuan, W.; Kos, I.; Batinic-Haberle, I.; Jones, S.; Riggins, G.J.; Friedman, H.; Friedman, A.; Reardon, D.; Herndon, J.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E.; Vogelstein, B.; Bigner, D.D. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 19;360(8):765-773.

Yun, J.; Rago, C.; Cheong, I.; Pagliarini, R.; Angenendt, P.; Rajagopalan, H.; Schmidt, K.; Willson, J.K.; Markowitz, S.; Zhou, S.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Velculescu, V.E.; Lengauer, C.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Papadopoulos, N. Glucose deprivation contributes to the development of KRAS pathway mutations in tumor cells. Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1555-1559.

Boca, S.M.; Kinzler, K.; Velculescu, V.E.; Vogelstein, B.; Parmigiani, G. Patient-oriented gene set analysis for cancer mutation data. Genome Biol. 2010 Nov 23;11(11):R112

Bozic, I.; Antal, T.; Ohtsuki, H.; Carter, H.; Kim, D.; Chen, S.; Karchin, R.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Nowak, M.A. Accumulation of driver and passenger mutations during tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18545-18550.

Ericson, K.; Gan, C.; Cheong, I.; Rago, C.; Samuels, Y.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Huso, D.L.; Vogelstein, B.; Papadopoulos, N. Genetic inactivation of AKT1, AKT2, and PDPK1 in human colorectal cancer cells clarifies their roles in tumor growth regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 9;107(6):2598-2603.

Gabelli, S.B.; Huang, C.H.; Mandelker, D.; Schmidt-Kittler, O.; Vogelstein, B.; Amzel, L.M. Structural effects of oncogenic PI3Kalpha mutations. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;347:43-53

Gabelli, S.B.; Mandelker, D.; Schmidt-Kittler, O.; Vogelstein, B.; Amzel, L.M. Somatic mutations in PI3Kalpha: structural basis for enzyme activation and drug design. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Mar;1804(3):533-540.

He, Y.; Wu, J.; Dressman, D.C.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.; Markowitz, S.D.; Velculescu, V.E.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Papadopoulos, N. Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations in normal and tumour cells. Nature. 2010 Mar 25;464(7288):610-614.

Jones, S.; Wang, T.L.; Shih Ie, M.; Mao, T.L.; Nakayama, K.; Roden, R.; Glas, R.; Slamon, D.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E.; Papadopoulos, N. Frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling gene ARID1A in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Science. 2010 Oct 8;330(6001):228-231

Lauring, J.; Cosgrove, D.P.; Fontana, S.; Gustin, J.P.; Konishi, H.; Abukhdeir, A.M.; Garay, J.P.; Mohseni, M.; Wang, G.M.; Higgins, M.J.; Gorkin, D.; Reis, M.; Vogelstein, B.; Polyak, K.; Cowherd, M.; Buckhaults, P.J.; Park, B.H. Knock in of the AKT1 E17K mutation in human breast epithelial cells does not recapitulate oncogenic PIK3CA mutations. Oncogene. 2010 Apr 22;29(16):2337-2345.

Leary, R.J.; Kinde, I.; Diehl, F.; Schmidt, K.; Clouser, C.; Duncan, C.; Antipova, A.; Lee, C.; McKernan, K.; De La Vega, F.M.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Velculescu, V.E. Development of personalized tumor biomarkers using massively parallel sequencing. Sci Transl Med. 2010 Feb 24;2(20):20ra14.

Parsons, D.W.; Li, M.; Zhang, X.; Jones, S.; Leary, R.J.; Lin, J.C.; Boca, S.M.; Carter, H.; Samayoa, J.; Bettegowda, C.; Gallia, G.L.; Jallo, G.I.; Binder, Z.A.; Nikolsky, Y.; Hartigan, J.; Smith, D.R.; Gerhard, D.S.; Fults, D.W.; Vandenberg, S.; Berger, M.S.; Marie, S.K.; Shinjo, S.M.; Clara, C.; Phillips, P.C.; Minturn, J.E.; Biegel, J.A.; Judkins, A.R.; Resnick, A.C.; Storm, P.B.; Curran, T.; He, Y.; Rasheed, B.A.; Friedman, H.S.; Keir, S.T.; McLendon, R.; Northcott, P.A.; Taylor, M.D.; Burger, P.C.; Riggins, G.J.; Karchin, R.; Parmigiani, G.; Bigner, D.D.; Yan, H.; Papadopoulos, N.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Velculescu, V.E. The Genetic Landscape of the Childhood Cancer Medulloblastoma. Science. 2010 Dec 16.

Schmidt-Kittler, O.; Zhu, J.; Yang, J.; Liu, G.; Hendricks, W.; Lengauer, C.; Gabelli, S.B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Huso, D.L.; Zhou, S. PI3Kalpha Inhibitors That Inhibit Metastasis. Oncotarget. 2010 Sep 1;1(5):339-348.

Yachida, S.; Jones, S.; Bozic, I.; Antal, T.; Leary, R.; Fu, B.; Kamiyama, M.; Hruban, R.H.; Eshleman, J.R.; Nowak, M.A.; Velculescu, V.E.; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, C.A. Distant metastasis occurs late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer. Nature. 2010 Oct 28;467(7319):1114-1117.

Jiao, Y.; Shi, C.; Edil, B.H.; de Wilde, R.F.; Klimstra, D.S.; Maitra, A.; Schulick, R.D.; Tang, L.H.; Wolfgang, C.L.; Choti, M.A.; Velculescu, V.E.; Diaz, L.A., Jr.; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.; Hruban, R.H.; Papadopoulos, N. DAXX/ATRX, MEN1, and mTOR Pathway Genes Are Frequently Altered in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Science. 2011 Jan 20;In Press.

 

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