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School of Medicine
Steven M Frank, M.D.
Medical Director: Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program, Johns Hopkins Hospital
Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
Expertise: Anesthesiology, Blood Disorders
Research Interests: Bloodless Medicine and Surgery; Autologous Hemodilution; Cell Salvage; Anesthesia Information Management Systems; Blood Conservation
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The Johns Hopkins Hospital
Appointment Phone: 410-502-7359
600 N. Wolfe Street
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Baltimore, MD 21287 map
Dr. Steven M. Frank is an associate professor of anesthesiology and critical care medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His area of clinical expertise is anesthesia for vascular, thoracic and transplant surgery, and he is an expert in blood conservation methods.
Dr. Frank serves as medical director for the Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program. He is also director of the Interdisciplinary Blood Management Program and of Perioperative Blood Management Services at Johns Hopkins.
He received his undergraduate degree in biology from the University of Missouri, Kansas City, where he also earned his medical degree. He completed his residency in anesthesiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and performed a fellowship in vascular, thoracic and transplant anesthesiology, also at Johns Hopkins.
Dr. Frank’s research is focused on methods to improve blood utilization and methods to avoid blood transfusion for those patients who wish not to receive blood or blood products. His recent research and publications focus on blood conservation and bloodless medicine and surgery.
Among his many professional activities, Dr. Frank serves on the board of directors for the Society for Advancement of Blood Management and is an editorial board member for the International Journal of Clinical Transfusion. He was named Teacher of the Year in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine in 2012 and is a member of a number of professional organizations including the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American Association of Blood Banks, the Society for Advancement of Blood Management and the Association of University Anesthesiologists.
- Medical Director: Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program, Johns Hopkins Hospital
- Director, Interdisciplinary Blood Management Program
- Director, Perioperative Blood Management Services
- Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
Departments / Divisions
- Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine - Adult Anesthesiology
Centers & Institutes
- Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine (1985)
- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Anesthesiology (1989)
- American Board of Anesthesiology / Anesthesiology (1991)
Research & Publications
Dr. Steven M. Frank’s research focuses on methods to improve blood utilization and methods to avoid blood transfusion for those patients who wish not to receive blood or blood products. These methods include autologous hemodilution and cell salvage (cell saver), as well as treating or preventing anemia before and after surgery. Previously, Dr. Frank’s research centered on body temperature regulation and methods of preventing hypothermia and its detrimental effects during surgery.
Selected PublicationsSelected Publications from complete list
1. Frank SM, Beattie C, Christopherson R, Rock P, Parker S, Gottleib SO: Perioperative rate related silent myocardial ischemia and postoperative death. J Clin Anesth 2:326-331, 1990.
2. Frank SM, Norris EJ, Christopherson R, Beattie C: Right and left arm blood pressure discrepancies in vascular surgery patients. Anesthesiology 75:457-463, 1991.
4. Frank SM, Christopherson R, Norris EJ, Rock P, Parker S, Perler B, Williams GM, Gottleib SO, Beattie C: Unintentional hypothermia is associated with postoperative myocardial ischemia. Anesthesiology 78:468-476, 1993.
5. Christopherson R, Beattie C, Frank SM, Gottleib SO, Meinert K, Norris EJ, Yates H, Rock P, Parker SD, Perler BA, Williams GM: Perioperative morbidity in patients randomized to epidural or general anesthesia for lower extremity vascular surgery. Anesthesiology 79:422-434, 1993. 6. Rosenfeld BA, Beattie C, Christopherson R, Norris EJ, Frank SM, Breslow M, Rock P, Perler BA, Williams GM, Bell W, and the PIRAT study group. The effects of different anesthetic regimes on fibrinolysis and the development of postoperative arterial thrombosis. Anesthesiology 79:435-443, 1993.
7. Breslow MJ, Parker SD, Frank SM, Norris EJ, Yates H, Raff H, Christopherson R, Rosenfeld BA, Beattie C. Determinants of catecholamine and cortisol responses to lower extremity revascularization. Anesthesiology 79:1202-1209, 1993.
9. Frank SM, Parker SD, Rock P, Gorman R, Kelly S, Beattie C, Williams GM: Moderate hypothermia with partial bypass and segmental sequential repair for thoracoabdominal aneurysm. J Vasc Surg, 19:687-697, 1994.
11. Stone CD, Greene, PS, Gott V, Frank SM, Williams GM: Single stage repair of distal aortic arch and thoraco-abdominal dissecting aneurysms using aortic tailoring and circulatory arrest. J Thorac Surg, 57:580-587, 1994.
12. Shir Y, Raja SN, Frank SM,: The effect of epidural vs. general anesthesia on postoperative pain and analgesic demands in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Anesthesiology 80:49-56, 1994.
13. Fleisher LA, Frank SM, Shir Y, Estafanous M, Kelly S, Raja SN: Cardiac sympathovagal balance and peripheral sympathetic vasoconstriction: Epidural vs. general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 79:165-171, 1994.
14. Shir Y, Frank SM, Brendler CM, Raja SN: Postoperative morbidity is similar in patients anesthetized with epidural vs. general anesthesia for radical prostatectomy. Urology 44, 232-236, 1994.
17. Frank SM, Higgins M, Breslow M, Fleisher LA, Gorman RB, Sitzman JV, Raff H, Beattie C: The catecholamine, cortisol, and hemodynamic responses to mild perioperative hypothermia: A randomized clinical trial. Anesthesiology 82:83-93, 1995.
18. Krenzischek DA, Frank SM, Kelly S: Forced-air skin-surface warming vs. routine thermal care and core temperature measurement sites. J Postanesth Nurs 10:69-78, 1995.
20. Parker SD, Breslow MJ, Frank SM, Rosenfeld BA, Norris EJ, Christopherson R, Rock P, Gottlieb SO, Raff H, Perler BA, Williams GM, Beattie C: Catecholamine and cortisol responses to lower extremity revascularization: Correlation with outcome variables. Crit Care Med 23:1954-1961, 1995.
21. Shir Y, Raja SN, Frank SM, Brendler C: Intraoperative blood loss during radical retropubic prostatectomy: Comparison of epidural vs. general anesthesia. Urology 45:993-999, 1995.
23. Frank SM, Gorman RB, Higgins MS, Breslow MJ, Fleisher LA, Sitzman JV:
Multivariate determinates of early postoperative oxygen consumption: The effects of body temperature, shivering, and gender. Anesthesiology 83:241-249, 1995.
24. Frank SM, El-Gamal N, Raja SN, Wu PK, Afifi O: Role of alpha -adrenoceptors in the maintenance of core temperature in humans. Clinical Science 89:219-225, 1995.
25. Fleisher LA, Frank SM, Sessler DI, Cheng C, Matsukawa T, Vannier CA:
Thermoregulation and heart rate variability. Clinical Science 90:97-103, 1996. 26. Nyhan DP, Shampaine EL, Hirshman CA, Hamilton RG, Frank SM , Baumgartner WA, Adkinson NF: Single doses of ntravenous protamine result in the formation of protamine-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. J Allergy Clin Imunol 97:991-997, 1996.
28. Frank SM, Higgins MS, Breslow MJ, Fleisher LA, Sitzmann JV: The adrenergic, respiratory and cardiovascular effects of core cooling in humans. Am J Physiol: 272 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 41):R557-R562, 1997 .
29. Frank SM, El-Gamal N, Raja SN, Wu PK: Alpha -Adrenoceptor mechanisms of thermoregulation during cold challenge in humans. Clinical Science 91:627-631, 1996.
30. Christopherson R, Glavan NJ, Norris EJ, Beattie C, Rock P, Frank SM, Gottlieb SO: Control of blood pressure and heart rate in patients randomized to epidural or general anesthesia for lower extremity vascular surgery. Perioperative Ischemia Randomized Anesthesia Trial (PIRAT) Study Group. J Clin Anesth 8: 578-584, 1996.
32. Frank SM, Fleisher LA, Breslow MJ, Higgins MS, Olson KF, Kelly S, Beattie C: Perioperative maintenance of normothermia reduces the incidence of morbid cardiac events: A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA 277:1127-1134, 1997.
33. Frank SM, Raja SN: Alpha -Adrenoceptor Mechanisms of Thermoregulation. Ann NY Acad Sci 813:101-110, 1997.
35. Frank SM, Nguyen JM, Garcia C, Barnes RA: Temperature monitoring practices during regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 88:373-377, 1999. 36. Frank SM, Raja SN, Bulcao C, Goldstein D: Relative contribution of core and cutaneous temperatures to thermal comfort and autonomic responses in humans. J Appl Physiol 86:1588-1593, 1999.
38. Frank SM, Tran K, Fleisher LA: Clinical importance of body temperature in the surgical patient. J Therm Biol 25:151-155, 2000
39. Frank SM, Raja SN, Bulcao C, Goldstein D: Relative contribution of core and skin temperatures to thermal comfort in humans. J Therm Biol 25:147-150, 2000
40. Tran K, Frank SM, El-Rahmany H, Ghoneim N, Kim L: Thermal and hemodynamic effects of postoperative rewarming with a sub-atmospheric pressure device. J Therm Biol 25:191-196, 2000.
41. Gupta N, Frank SM, Ghoneim N, El-Rahmany H, Talamini M, Zacur H:
Thermoregulation and hormone replacement in postmenopausal women. J Therm Biol 25:165-169, 2000.
42. ElRahmany HK, Frank SM, Schneider G, El-Gamal NA, Vannieer CA, Ammar R, Okasha AS: Forced-air warming decreases vasodilator requirement following coronary artery bypass surgery, Anesth Analg 90:286-291, 2000.
43. El-Gamal N, El-Kassabany N, Frank SM, Amar R, Khabar HA, ElRahmany HK, Okasha AS: Age-related thermoregulatory differences in a warm operating room environment (≈26C), Anesth Analg 90:694-698, 2000.
44. Frank SM, ElRahmany HK, Cattaneo CG, Barnes RA, Lee NS: Predictors of hypothermia during spinal anesthesia, Anesthesiology 92:1330-1334, 2000.
45. Frank SM, Raja SN, Bulcao C, Goldstein DS: Age-related thermoregulatory differences during core cooling in humans. Am J Physiol: (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol.) 279:R349-R354, 2000.
46. Cattaneo CM, Frank SM, Hesel TW, ElRahmany HK, Kim LJ, Tran KM: Accuracy and precision of temperature monitoring methods during regional and general anesthesia, Anesth Analg 90:938-945, 2000
47. Frank SM, El-Rahmany HK, Tran KM, Vu B, Raja SN.
Comparison of lower extremity cutaneous temperature changes in patients receiving lumbar sympathetic ganglion blocks versus epidural anesthesia.
J Clin Anesth. 2000 Nov;12(7):525-30.
48. Tran KM Vu B, Raja SN, ElRahmany HK, Kim LJ, Frank SM: Lumbar sympathetic block for sympathetically maintained pain: Changes in cutaneous temperatures and pain perception, Anesth Analg, 90:1396-1401, 2000.
49. Fleisher LA, Fleckenstein JF, Frank SM, Thulavath PJ: Heart rate complexity as a predictor of autonomic dysfunction in patients awaiting liver transplantation. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 45:340-344, 2000.
50. Frank SM, Hesel T, El-Rahmany HK, Tran KM, Bamford OS: Warmed humidified inspired oxygen accelerates postoperative rewarming J Clin Anesth 12:283-287, 2000
51. ElRahmany HK, Frank SM, Vannier CA, Schneider G, Okasha AS, Bulcao CF: Determinants of core temperature at the time of admission to intensive care following cardiac surgery, J Clin Anesth 12:177-183, 2000.
52. Frank SM, Kluger MJ, Kunkel SL: Elevated thermostatic setpoint in postoperative patients. Anesthesiology 93:1426-1431, 2000.
53. Goldstein DS, Frank SM: The wisdom of the body revisited: The adrenomedullary response to mild core hypothermia in humans, Endocrine Regulations 35:3-7, 2001
54. Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Frank SM, Dendi R, Cannon RO 3rd, Sharabi Y, Esler MD, Eisenhofer G. Cardiac sympathetic dysautonomia in chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes. Circulation. 2002 Oct 29;106(18):2358-65.
55. Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Frank SM, Naqibuddin M, Dendi R, Snader S, Calkins H. Sympathoadrenal imbalance before neurocardiogenic syncope.
Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jan 1;91(1):53-8.
56. Frank SM, Cattaneo CG, Wieneke-Brady MB, El-Rahmany HK, Gupta N, Lima JAC, Goldstein DSG: Threshold for adrenomedulary activation and increased cardiac work during mild core hypothermia in awake humans, Clin Science 102:119-125, 2002.
57. Frank SM, Satitpunwaycha P, Bruce SR, Herscovitch P, Goldstein DS: Increased myocardial perfusion and sympathoadrenal activation during mild core hypothermia in awake humans. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003 May;104(5):503-8.
58. Agrawal N, Sewell DA, Griswold ME, Frank SM, Hessel TW, Eisele DW.
Hypothermia during head and neck surgery.
Laryngoscope. 2003 Aug;113(8):1278-82.
59. Gottschalk A, Frank SM. Prolonged differential wound hyperalgesia after an interval of unilateral epidural blockade during lower abdominal surgery.
Anesth Analg. 2005 May;100(5):1411-3
60. Frank SM: Who Benefits from Red Cell Salvage? Utility and Value of Intraoperative Autologous Transfusion. 51:2058-2060, 2011
61. Frank SM, Savage WJ, Rothschild JA, Rivers RJ, Ness PM, Paul SL, Ulatowski JA: Variability in blood and blood component utilization as assessed by an anesthesia information management system Anesthesiology, 2012, April 23 (Epub ahead of print).
62. George TJ, Beaty CA, Kilic A, Haggerty KA, Frank SM, Savage WJ, Whitman GJ. Hemoglobin Drift after Cardiac Surgery. Ann Thorac Surg, 2012, May 18, (Epub ahead of print).
Activities & Honors
- Teacher of the Year Award, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, 1999 - 2012
- American Association of Blood Banks
- American Medical Association
- American Physiological Society
- American Society of Anesthesiologists
- American Society of Echocardiography
- American Society of Testing and Materials
- Association of University Anesthesiologists
- International Anesthesia Research Society
- International Trauma Anesthesia and Critical Care Society
- Society for Advancement of Blood Management
- Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists
- North American Blood Management Advisory Group, 2012
- Associate Editor, Anesthesiology, 1999
- Chair, Society for Advancement of Blood Management, 2013
- Co-Chair, Society for Advancement of Blood Management, 2013
- Director at Large, Society for Advancement of Blood Management, 2013
- Editorial board, International Journal of Clinical Transfusion Medicine, 2013
- Patient Blood Management National Standards Committee, American Academy of Blood Banks, 2013
Videos & Media
Bloodless Medicine and Surgery: What You Need to Know | Steven Frank, M.D.
How it Works: Bloodless Medicine and Surgery - An Alternative to Blood Transfusion
Recent News Articles and Media Coverage
- Stored blood for transfusions may have shorter shelf life than once thought, CBS News, March 5, 2013
- Recycled blood is better than donated blood for transfusions, Hopkins study finds, The Washington Post To Your Health blog, May 4, 2014
- Using a patient’s own blood in heart surgery, The New York Times Well blog, May 19, 2014
- NY Times health section - "Surgery''s Chill Can Be Risky"