Nicholas Salvatore Reed, Au.D.

Headshot of Nicholas Salvatore Reed
  • Audiologist
  • Joint Appointment in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Specializes in: Geriatrics (55+ years), Infants (up to 1 year)


Audiology, Diagnostic Audiology and Digital Amplification, Hearing Aids, Pediatric Diagnostic Audiology and Hearing Aids more

Research Interests

Hearing Loss; Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids; Hearing Care more


Dr. Nicholas Reed is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health with a joint appointment in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. During his training as a clinical audiologist, he became concerned with the current state of hearing care in the United States, where less than 20% of adults with hearing loss own and use hearing aids, and whether the barriers hearing loss places on communication in health care settings impact health care outcomes for adults with hearing loss. His research focuses on direct-to-consumer hearing care, understanding hearing aid use in the United States, the relationship between hearing loss and health care outcomes/interactions (e.g., satisfaction with care, inpatient safety, quality of care, delirium, etc.), and whether interventions targeting hearing loss can mitigate these associations. He approaches his intervention work through an implementation science lens with a focus on sustainable interventions to create a more equitable health care system for the millions of adults with hearing loss.

Dr. Reed is core faculty at the Cochlear Center for Hearing and Public Health where he is the Director of the Audiology core. In this capacity, he oversees the integration of hearing measures and hearing care into cohort studies and clinical trials. This includes selection of appropriate measures, grant preparation support, development of hearing data collection protocols, technician training procedures, quality assurance, data management, and quality control. He currently manages hearing data collection the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study, the BIOCARD Study, the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, National Health Aging and Trends Study, and The Longitudinal Aging Study of India. He is a co-investigator in the Aging and Cognitive Health Evaluation in Elders (ACHIEVE) trial where he is a member of the hearing intervention subcommittee and co-chairs the recruitment subcommittee. more


  • Audiologist
  • Joint Appointment in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Departments / Divisions



  • B.A.; Lycoming College (Pennsylvania) (2008)
  • Au.D.; Towson University (Maryland) (2015)

Additional Training

  • Maryland Board of Audiologist / Hearing Aid Dispensers & Speech-Language Pathologists
  • American Speech Language Hearing Association / Certificate of Clinical Competence

Research & Publications

Research Summary

Dr. Reed works closely with his mentor, Frank R. Lin, MD, PhD, on research examining the impact of hearing loss on healthcare outcomes, the impact of addressing hearing loss, and how to effectively address hearing loss. He has led integration of hearing data collection into epidemiologic trials including the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and works on clinical trials including the Aging and Cognitive Health Evaluation in Elders (ACHIEVE) Study. His research has focused on over-the-counter hearing care, addressing hearing loss in the hospital setting, the impact of hearing loss on patient-provider communication, and the impact of hearing loss on healthcare utilization. 

Clinical Trial Keywords

Hearing Loss

Selected Publications

View all on PubMed

Reed NS, Assi L, Horiuchi W, Hoover-Fong JE, Lin FR, Ferrante LE, Inouye SK, Miller Iii ER, Boss EF, Oh ES, Willink A. Medicare Beneficiaries With Self-Reported Functional Hearing Difficulty Have Unmet Health Care Needs. Health Aff (Millwood) . 2021 May; 40 (5) :786-794 . doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02371. PubMed PMID: 33939509

Reed NS, Boss EF, Lin FR, Oh ES, Willink A. Satisfaction With Quality of Health Care Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Functional Hearing Loss. Med Care. 2021 Jan; 59 (1) :22-28 . doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001419. PubMed PMID: 32925460 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7736070

Reed NS, Ferrante LE, Oh ES. Addressing Hearing Loss to Improve Communication During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020 Sep; 68 (9) :1924-1926 . doi: 10.1111/jgs.16674. Epub 2020 Jul 2. PubMed PMID: 32548882 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7323388

Reed NS, Altan A, Deal JA, Yeh C, Kravetz AD, Wallhagen M, Lin FR. Trends in Health Care Costs and Utilization Associated With Untreated Hearing Loss Over 10 Years. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Jan 1; 145 (1) :27-34. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2018.2875. PubMed PMID: 30419131 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6439810

Reed NS, Betz J, Kendig N, Korczak M, Lin FR. Personal Sound Amplification Products vs a Conventional Hearing Aid for Speech Understanding in Noise. JAMA. 2017 Jul 4; 318 (1) :89-90 . doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6905. PubMed PMID: 28672306 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5817472

Academic Affiliations & Courses

Graduate Program Affiliation

Graduate Training Programs in Clinical Investigation

Videos & Media

Recent News Articles and Media Coverage

July 2016. No Hearing Aid? Some Gizmos Offer Alternative to ‘Speak Up!’. Quoted by Paula Span of New York Times

December 2018. Hearing Loss Threatens Mind, Life and Limb. Quoted by Jane Brody, New York Times

December 2020. Smart Hearing Aids Go Beyond Help With Audio. Quoted by Jason Rich, AARP

April 2021. Hearing Aids for the Masses. Quoted by Shira Ovide, The New York Times

June 2021. My mom can't afford hearing aids. The pandemic reminded us why she needs them. Quoted by Bobbi Dempsey, Washington Post


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