Edward S Kraus, M.D.

Headshot of Edward S Kraus
  • Professor of Medicine

Languages: English, German


Incompatible Kidney Transplant, Kidney Transplant, Nephrology, Pancreas Transplant ...read more

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Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center

Appointment Phone: 410-955-0670
4940 Eastern Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21224
Phone: 410-550-2820
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The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Main Entrance)

Appointment Phone: 410-955-0670
1800 Orleans St.
Sheikh Zayed Tower
Baltimore, MD 21287
The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Main Entrance) - Google Maps


Dr. Edward Kraus is a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He completed his undergraduate education at Cornell University, received his MD at Northwestern University and completed an Internal Medicine residency at Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital in Cleveland, OH. After completing a Nephrology Fellowship at Baltimore City Hospitals, Dr. Kraus has been a member of the faculty since 1981. As part of his clinical duties he has cared for kidney transplant patients during his entire tenure at Johns Hopkins. As the scope of the kidney transplant program grew, his clinical responsibilities during the last 15 years have been limited to care of kidney and pancreas transplant donors and recipients. He currently serves as the Senior Kidney Transplant Nephrologist and Medical Director of the Pancreas Transplant Program. Dr. Kraus’ interests have focused upon factors affecting the long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients and barriers to access of care for minority recipients. He has worked extensively with Pathology and has participated in the development of the Johns Hopkins Incompatible Kidney Transplant Program with particular emphasis on evolving concepts of patterns of injury with the goal of development of clinical interventions to preserve allograft function.

Dr. Kraus is a member of the National Kidney Foundation, the American Society of Nephrology, the International Society of Nephrology and the American Society of Transplantation. He actively serves on Committees of these various organizations. Upon nomination by his patients, students and peers in recognition for his clinical care and teaching skills, Dr. Kraus was inducted into the Miller-Coulson Academy of Clinical Excellence at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center.

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  • Professor of Medicine

Departments / Divisions

Centers & Institutes



  • MD; Medicine; Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (1975)


  • Internal Medicine; Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital (1978)


  • Nephrology; Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center (1981)

Board Certifications

  • American Board of Internal Medicine (Internal Medicine) (1978)
  • American Board of Internal Medicine (Nephrology) (1982)

Research & Publications

Selected Publications

  1. Serena Bagnasco; Edward Kraus; Banu Sis; Diagnostic criteria for kidney transplant rejection: a call to action. Lancet 2013;381(9876):1458. 2013 
  2. D Neofytos; K Kobayashi; C D Alonso; J Cady-Reh; D Lepley; M Harris; N Desai; E Kraus; A Subramanian; S Treadway; et al. Epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society 2013;15(2):134-41. 2013 
  3. L Ebony Boulware; Felicia Hill-Briggs; Edward S Kraus; J Keith Melancon; Brenda Falcone; Patti L Ephraim; Bernard G Jaar; Luis Gimenez; Michael Choi; Mikiko Senga; et al. Effectiveness of educational and social worker interventions to activate patients' discussion and pursuit of preemptive living donor kidney transplantation: a randomized controlled trial. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2013;61(3):476-86. 2013 
  4. A Sharif; N Alachkar; E Kraus; Incompatible kidney transplantation: a brief overview of the past, present and future. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 2012;105(12):1141-50. 2012 
  5. Adnan Sharif; Nada Alachkar; Serena Bagnasco; Duvuru Geetha; Gaurav Gupta; Karl Womer; Lois Arend; Lorraine Racusen; Robert Montgomery; Edward Kraus; Incidence and outcomes of BK virus allograft nephropathy among ABO- and HLA-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 2012;7(8):1320-7. 2012 
  6. Adnan Sharif; Andrea A Zachary; Janet Hiller; Dorry Segev; Nada Alachkar; Edward S Kraus; Niraj M Desai; Nabil N Dagher; Andrew L Singer; Robert A Montgomery; Rescue kidney paired donation as emergency salvage for failed desensitization. Transplantation 2012;93(7):e27-9. 2012
  7. C B Drachenberg; J R Torrealba; B J Nankivell; E B Rangel; I M Bajema; D U Kim; L Arend; E R Bracamonte; J S Bromberg; J A Bruijn; et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in pancreas allografts-updated Banff grading schema. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2011;11(9):1792-802. 2011 
  8. Robert A Montgomery; Bonnie E Lonze; Karen E King; Edward S Kraus; Lauren M Kucirka; Jayme E Locke; Daniel S Warren; Christopher E Simpkins; Nabil N Dagher; Andrew L Singer; et al. Desensitization in HLA-incompatible kidney recipients and survival. The New England journal of medicine 2011;365(4):318-26. 2011 
  9. L Ebony Boulware; Felicia Hill-Briggs; Edward S Kraus; J Keith Melancon; Mikiko Senga; Kira E Evans; Misty U Troll; Patti Ephraim; Bernard G Jaar; Donna I Myers; et al. Identifying and addressing barriers to African American and non-African American families' discussions about preemptive living related kidney transplantation. Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) 2011;21(2):97-104; quiz 105. 2011 
  10. L Ebony Boulware; Felicia Hill-Briggs; Edward S Kraus; J Keith Melancon; Raquel McGuire; Bobbie Bonhage; Mikiko Senga; Patti Ephraim; Kira E Evans; Brenda Falcone; et al. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of culturally sensitive interventions to improve African Americans' and non-African Americans' early, shared, and informed consideration of live kidney transplantation: the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study. BMC nephrology 2011;12():34. 2011 
  11. N Alachkar; R Ugarte; E Huang; K L Womer; R Montgomery; E Kraus; H Rabb; Stem cell factor, interleukin-16, and interleukin-2 receptor alpha are predictive biomarkers for delayed and slow graft function. Transplantation proceedings 2010;42(9):3399-405. 2010 
  12. Duvuru Geetha; Mark Haas; Edward S Kraus; Hamid Rabb; Philip Seo; Renal transplant in Wegener's granulomatosis compared to microscopic polyangiitis. The Journal of rheumatology 2010;37(8):1705-8. 2010 
  13. B Sis; M Mengel; M Haas; R B Colvin; P F Halloran; L C Racusen; K Solez; W M Baldwin; E R Bracamonte; V Broecker; et al. Banff '09 meeting report: antibody mediated graft deterioration and implementation of Banff working groups. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2010;10(3):464-71. 2010 
  14. E S Kraus; R S Parekh; P Oberai; D Lepley; D L Segev; S Bagnasco; V Collins; M Leffell; D Lucas; H Rabb; et al. Subclinical rejection in stable positive crossmatch kidney transplant patients: incidence and correlations. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2009;9(8):1826-34. 2009 
  15. Robert A Montgomery; Jayme E Locke; Karen E King; Dorry L Segev; Daniel S Warren; Edward S Kraus; Matthew Cooper; Christopher E Simpkins; Andrew L Singer; Zoe A Stewart; et al. ABO incompatible renal transplantation: a paradigm ready for broad implementation. Transplantation 2009;87(8):1246-55. 2009 
  16. Serena M Bagnasco; Basim S Mohammed; Haresh Mani; Maria Teresa Gandolfo; Mark Haas; Lorraine C Racusen; Robert A Montgomery; Edward Kraus; Oxalate deposits in biopsies from native and transplanted kidneys, and impact on graft function. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2009;24(4):1319-25. 2009 
  17. Edmund Huang; Millie Samaniego-Picota; Thomas McCune; Joseph K Melancon; Robert A Montgomery; Richard Ugarte; Edward Kraus; Karl Womer; Hamid Rabb; Terry Watnick; DNA testing for live kidney donors at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Transplantation 2009;87(1):133-7. 2009 
  18. Mark Haas; Dorry L Segev; Lorraine C Racusen; Serena M Bagnasco; Jayme E Locke; Daniel S Warren; Christopher E Simpkins; Diane Lepley; Karen E King; Edward S Kraus; et al. C4d deposition without rejection correlates with reduced early scarring in ABO-incompatible renal allografts. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2009;20(1):197-204. 2009 
  19. J E Locke; C M Magro; A L Singer; D L Segev; M Haas; A T Hillel; K E King; E Kraus; L M Lees; J K Melancon; et al. The use of antibody to complement protein C5 for salvage treatment of severe antibody-mediated rejection. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2009;9(1):231-5. 2009 
  20. K Solez; R B Colvin; L C Racusen; M Haas; B Sis; M Mengel; P F Halloran; W Baldwin; G Banfi; A B Collins; et al. Banff 07 classification of renal allograft pathology: updates and future directions. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2008;8(4):753-60. 2008 
  21. Mark Haas; Dorry L Segev; Lorraine C Racusen; Serena M Bagnasco; J Keith Melancon; Miguel Tan; Edward S Kraus; Hamid Rabb; Richard M Ugarte; James F Burdick; et al. Arteriosclerosis in kidneys from healthy live donors: comparison of wedge and needle core perioperative biopsies. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 2008;132(1):37-42. 2008 
  22. S M Bagnasco; W Tsai; M H Rahman; E S Kraus; L Barisoni; R Vega; L C Racusen; M Haas; B S Mohammed; A A Zachary; et al. CD20-positive infiltrates in renal allograft biopsies with acute cellular rejection are not associated with worse graft survival. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2007;7(8):1968-73. 2007 
  23. M Haas; R A Montgomery; D L Segev; M H Rahman; L C Racusen; S M Bagnasco; C E Simpkins; D S Warren; D Lepley; A A Zachary; et al. Subclinical acute antibody-mediated rejection in positive crossmatch renal allografts. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2007;7(3):576-85. 2007 
  24. T K Mehta; M O Hoque; R Ugarte; M H Rahman; E Kraus; R Montgomery; K Melancon; D Sidransky; H Rabb; Quantitative detection of promoter hypermethylation as a biomarker of acute kidney injury during transplantation. Transplantation proceedings 2006;38(10):3420-6. 2006 
  25. M Haas; M H Rahman; L C Racusen; E S Kraus; S M Bagnasco; D L Segev; C E Simpkins; D S Warren; K E King; A A Zachary; et al. C4d and C3d staining in biopsies of ABO- and HLA-incompatible renal allografts: correlation with histologic findings. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2006;6(8):1829-40. 2006 
  26. Mark Haas; Hamid Rabb; Edward S Kraus; Long-term outcome of renal transplantation from older donors. The New England journal of medicine 2006;354(19):2071-4; author reply 2071-4. 2006 
  27. Edward Kraus; Hamid Rabb; EPO therapy during acute kidney disease: to use or not to use, that is the question. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2005;46(5):967-9. 2005 
  28. Robert A Montgomery; Andrea A Zachary; Lloyd E Ratner; Dorry L Segev; Janet M Hiller; Julie Houp; Mathew Cooper; Louis Kavoussi; Thomas Jarrett; James Burdick; et al. Clinical results from transplanting incompatible live kidney donor/recipient pairs using kidney paired donation. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2005;294(13):1655-63. 2005 
  29. Richard Ugarte; Edward Kraus; Robert A Montgomery; James F Burdick; Lloyd Ratner; Mark Haas; Alan M Hawxby; Seth J Karp; Excellent outcomes after transplantation of deceased donor kidneys with high terminal creatinine and mild pathologic lesions. Transplantation 2005;80(6):794-800. 2005 
  30. Jean Wu; Bernard G Jaar; William A Briggs; Michael J Choi; Edward S Kraus; Lorraine C Racusen; Mohamed G Atta; Milagros D Samaniego; High-dose mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of posttransplant glomerular disease in the allograft: a case series. Nephron. Clinical practice 2004;98(3):c61-6. 2004 
  31. Christopher J Sonnenday; Matthew Cooper; Edward Kraus; Fred Gage; Christopher Handley; Robert A Montgomery; The hazards of basing acceptance of cadaveric renal allografts on pulsatile perfusion parameters alone. Transplantation 2003;75(12):2029-33. 2003 
  32. Ernesto P Molmenti; Peter A Pinto; Robert A Montgomery; Li-Ming Su; Edward Kraus; Matthew Cooper; Christopher J Sonnenday; Andrew S Klein; Louis R Kavoussi; Lloyd E Ratner; Concomitant surgery with laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons 2003;3(2):219-23. 2003 
  33. Robert A Montgomery; Matthew Cooper; Edward Kraus; Hamid Rabb; Milagros Samaniego; Christopher E Simpkins; Christopher J Sonnenday; Richard M Ugarte; Daniel S Warren; Andrea A Zachary; Renal transplantation at the Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Transplant Center. Clinical transplants 2003;():199-213. 2003 
  34. Jordan P Steinberg; Rene L Galindo; Edward S Kraus; Khalil G Ghanem; Disseminated acanthamebiasis in a renal transplant recipient with osteomyelitis and cutaneous lesions: case report and literature review. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2002;35(5):e43-9. 2002
  35. C J Sonnenday; L E Ratner; A A Zachary; J F Burdick; M D Samaniego; E Kraus; D S Warren; R A Montgomery; Preemptive therapy with plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin allows successful live donor renal transplantation in patients with a positive cross-match. Transplantation proceedings 2002;34(5):1614-6. 2002 
  36. Mark Haas; Edward S Kraus; Milagros Samaniego-Picota; Lorraine C Racusen; Wen Ni; Joseph A Eustace; Acute renal allograft rejection with intimal arteritis: histologic predictors of response to therapy and graft survival. Kidney international 2002;61(4):1516-26. 2002 
  37. H P Tan; M D Samaniego; R A Montgomery; J F Burdick; W R Maley; E S Kraus; L E Ratner; Donor horseshoe kidneys for transplantation. Transplantation 2001;72(5):869-73. 2001 
  38. M S Leffell; E Kraus; L C Racusen; L E Ratner; D Charney; A A Zachary; Effect of Bw4 and Bw6 epitope mismatches on antibody production, acute and chronic rejection, and graft survival in renal allografts. Transplantation 2001;72(3):433-7. 2001 
  39. F Kouli; C H Morrell; L E Ratner; E S Kraus; Impact of donor/recipient traits independent of rejection on long-term renal function. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2001;37(2):356-65. 2001 
  40. D Geetha; J B Zachary; H M Baldado; J D Kronz; E S Kraus; Pure red cell aplasia caused by Parvovirus B19 infection in solid organ transplant recipients: a case report and review of literature. Clinical transplantation 2000;14(6):586-91. 2000
  41. A K Mandal; E S Kraus; M Samaniego; R Rai; S L Humphreys; L E Ratner; W R Maley; J F Burdick; Shorter waiting times for hepatitis C virus seropositive recipients of cadaveric renal allografts from hepatitis C virus seropositive donors. Clinical transplantation 2000;14(4 Pt 2):391-6. 2000 
  42. L E Ratner; R A Montgomery; W R Maley; C Cohen; J Burdick; K D Chavin; D S Kittur; P Colombani; A Klein; E S Kraus; et al. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: the recipient. Transplantation 2000;69(11):2319-23. 2000 
  43. L V Hofmann; P A Smith; B S Kuszyk; E Kraus; E K Fishman; Three-dimensional helical CT angiography in renal transplant recipients: a new problem-solving tool. AJR. American journal of roentgenology 1999;173(4):1085-9. 1999 
  44. L E Ratner; F G Cigarroa; J S Bender; T Magnuson; E S Kraus; Transplantation of single and paired pediatric kidneys into adult recipients. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 1997;185(5):437-45. 1997 
  45. L E Ratner; E Kraus; T Magnuson; J S Bender; Transplantation of kidneys from expanded criteria donors. Surgery 1996;119(4):372-7. 1996 
  46. E S Kraus; L Cheng; I Sikorski; D A Spector; Effect of phosphorus restriction on renal response to oral and intravenous protein loads in rats. The American journal of physiology 1993;264(4 Pt 2):F752-9. 1993 
  47. E Kraus; D Teller; L Cheng; G Briefel; B Sacktor; D Spector; Early effects of subtotal nephrectomy and food restriction on urinary calcium in the rat. Mineral and electrolyte metabolism 1990;16(4):202-9. 1990 
  48. L Cheng; C Dersch; E Kraus; B Sacktor; Calcium and renal adaptation to a phosphate load in the thyroparathyroidectomized rat. The American journal of physiology 1986;251(5 Pt 2):F777-83. 1986 
  49. E Kraus; G Briefel; L Cheng; B Sacktor; D Spector; Phosphate excretion in uremic rats: effects of parathyroidectomy and phosphate restriction. The American journal of physiology 1985;248(2 Pt 2):F175-82. 1985 
  50. B S Bender; J L Curtis; J E Nagel; F J Chrest; E S Kraus; G R Briefel; W H Adler; Analysis of immune status of hemodialyzed adults: association with prior transfusions. Kidney international 1984;26(4):436-43. 1984 
  51. L Cheng; C Dersch; E Kraus; D Spector; B Sacktor; Renal adaptation to phosphate load in the acutely thyroparathyroidectomized rat: rapid alteration in brush border membrane phosphate transport. The American journal of physiology 1984;246(4 Pt 2):F488-94. 1984 
  52. E S Kraus; D A Spector; Characteristics and sequelae of peritonitis in diabetics and nondiabetics receiving chronic intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Medicine 1983;62(1):52-7. 1983 

Activities & Honors


  • American Society of Nephrology
  • American Society of Transplantation
  • International Society of Nephrology
  • National Kidney Foundation

Professional Activities

  • Miller-Coulson Academy of Clinical Excellence, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
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