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Displaying 1 to 11 of 11 results for vision

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  • Alfredo Kirkwood Laboratory

    Research in the Alfredo Kirkwood Laboratory is directed toward elucidating the basic mechanisms by which visual experience can modify cortical connections in the visual cortex and how those mechanisms are regulated.

    In visual cortical slices, we investigate two forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These two forms of synaptic plasticity are currently the most comprehensive models of the elementary mechanisms underlying naturally occurring plasticity. We are currently focused on how synaptic inhibition and the action of neuromodulators regulate the induction of LTP and LTD during development. We hope to gain a better understanding of how naturally occurring plasticity is regulated.

    Research Areas: synaptic plasticity, depression, vision, visual cortex, long-term potentiation

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Alfredo Kirkwood, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Ed Connor Laboratory

    The Connor Laboratory focuses on understanding the neural algorithms that make object vision possible. The goal of our research is to explain the neural basis of visual experience and contribute to designs for more powerful machine vision systems and brain-machine interfaces.

    Research Areas: vision, brain-machine interfaces, object perception

    Principal Investigator

    Charles Connor, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Health Technologies

    The APL Health Technologies program's functional restoration focus area includes two portfolios with particular relevance in neurology. The first focuses on motor restoration, using teams with expertise in robotics, microsensors, haptics, artificial intelligence and brain-machine interfaces. One set of projects, currently sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Henry Jackson Foundation, centers on a bionic arm technology that integrates with bone and muscle in amputee patients, restoring a variety of normal functions to the patient like cooking, folding clothing, hand shaking, and hand gestures. This portfolio explores direct brain control of the bionic limb, through work led by Dr. Nathan Crone of Johns Hopkins Neurology and Dr. Pablo Celnik of Johns Hopkins Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Another set of related work aims to restore motor function by better understanding and using brain signals through brain-machine interfaces. This work is current...ly funded by the National Science Foundation and industry partners. Also in the functional restoration focus area is the vision restoration portfolio. In a partnership with Second Sight and the Mann Fund, the work aims to enhance function of a bionic eye, which couples a retinal implant with a computer vision system to restore vision in blind individuals with retinitis pigmentosa. Current work in the human-machine teaming focus area includes a portfolio that is building artificial intelligence systems that improve radiologic and ophthalmic diagnostics. Another portfolio, currently focused in the surgical setting, enhances the physician's ability to visualize and manipulate the physical world, such as with orthopaedic surgery. view less

    Research Areas: robotics, imaging systems, machine learning, data fusion, artificial intelligence

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Adam Cohen, M.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • Hey-Kyoung Lee Lab

    The Hey-Kyoung Lee Lab is interested in exploring the cellular and molecular changes that happen at synapses to allow memory storage. We use various techniques, including electrophysiological recording, biochemical and molecular analysis, and imaging, to understand the cellular and molecular changes that happen during synaptic plasticity.

    Currently, we are examining the molecular and cellular mechanisms of global homeostatic synaptic plasticity using sensory cortices as model systems. In particular, we found that loss of vision elicits global changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the primary visual cortex. Vision loss also triggers specific synaptic changes in other primary sensory cortices, which we postulate underlies sensory compensation in the blind. One of our main research goals is to understand the mechanisms underlying such cross-modal synaptic plasticity.

    We are also interested in elucidating the events that occur in diseased brains. In collaboration with othe...r researchers, we are analyzing various mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, especially focusing on the possible alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms.
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    Research Areas: biochemistry, synaptic plasticity, memory, imaging, vision, molecular biology, Alzheimer's disease

    Principal Investigator

    Hey-Kyoung Lee, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • King-Wai Yau Laboratory

    The King-Wai Yau Laboratory is interested in the area of sensory transduction. Specifically, we study visual and olfactory transductions, which are the processes by which the senses of vision and olfaction are initiated.

    Rods and cones are the retinal photoreceptors that absorb light for initiating image vision. We are studying the cellular and molecular details underlying rod and cone phototransduction.

    Research Areas: phototransduction, vision, sensory transduction, olfactory system

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    King-Wai Yau, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Kristina Nielsen Laboratory

    The Kristina Nielsen Laboratory investigates neural circuits in the visual cortex that are responsible for encoding objects to understand how the visual system performs object recognition. We aim to reveal the fine-scale organization of neural circuits, with an emphasis on higher-level visual areas. We use two-photon microscopy to perform high-resolution functional imaging of visual areas in the non-human primate. We also investigate how the function of higher visual areas changes over the course of brain development in ferrets, by measuring the activity of single neurons in these areas, as well as determining the animal's visual capabilities at various developmental stages. In both types of investigations, we also rely on detailed anatomical techniques to precisely observe how the function of neuronal circuits is related to their structure.

    Research Areas: neural circuits, neurons, imaging, vision, photon microscopy, object perception

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Kristina Nielsen, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Marshall Shuler Laboratory

    The Marshall Shuler Laboratory aims to understand the means by which brain reward systems convey reward value, expectancy, quality, probability and utility, and the rules by which such activity is used to affect synaptic weight within brain networks to encode stimulus-action associations. We use an interdisciplinary approach combining multisite recordings of neural activity, targeted pharmacological manipulation, viral-mediated gene transfer and behavior to study the neural mechanisms of reward-based interval learning in the primary visual cortex.

    Research Areas: neural circuits, reward-based systems, brain, vision, pharmacology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Marshall Shuler, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Stewart Hendry Laboratory

    The Stewart Hendry Laboratory uses a strategy that exploits the unique molecular characteristics of neurons to understand how these streams are organized and the types of visual signals they carry. We identify those characteristics and then use them to study distinct neuronal populations in isolation. We use anatomical approaches to study the position of these neurons in the path of visual information transfer and the circuits whereby they accomplish an analysis and synthesis of information. Collaborative studies determine by optical imaging and electrophysiological methods the physiological properties of neuronal populations previously identified by their molecular characteristics. Such a strategy exploits the robust but selective expression of neuronal genes to address questions of visual system organization, function and plasticity across the primate order, including humans.

    Research Areas: neurons, imaging, electrophysiology, vision

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Stewart Hendry, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Systems Neurobiology Laboratory

    The Systems neurobiology Laboratory is a group of laboratories that all study various aspects of neurobiology. These laboratories include: (1) computational neurobiology Laboratory: The goal of their research is to build bridges between brain levels from the biophysical properties of synapses to the function of neural systems. (2) computational Principles of Natural Sensory Processing: Research in this lab focuses on the computational principles of how the brain processes information. (3) Laboratory for Cognitive neuroscience: This laboratory studies the neural and genetic underpinnings of language and cognition. (4) Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical neurobiology: The goal of this laboratory is develop a theoretical infrastructure for modern experimental neurobiology. (5) Organization and development of visual cortex: This laboratory is studying the organization and function of neural circuits in the visual cortex to understand how specific neural components enable visual perception ...and to elucidate the basic neural mechanisms that underlie cortical function. (6) Neural mechanism of selective visual attention: This laboratory studies the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention at the level of the individual neuron and cortical circuit, and relates these findings to perception and conscious awareness. (7) Neural basis of vision: This laboratory studies how sensory signals in the brain become integrated to form neuronal representation of the objects that people see. view less

    Research Areas: cognition, systems biology, brain, vision, neuroscience, perception

  • The Swenor Research Group

    The Swenor Research Group focuses on examining the interrelationship between vision loss and aging. This includes determining the effects of visual impairment and eye disease on physical and cognitive functioning in older adults, and identifying interventions that could enhance the health of older adults with visual impairment and eye disease.

    Research Areas: cognitive functioning, access to care, vision impairment, reading, frailty, physical functioning, dual sensory impairment

  • Vestibular NeuroEngineering Lab

    Research in the Vestibular NeuroEngineering Lab (VNEL) focuses on restoring inner ear function through “bionic” electrical stimulation, inner ear gene therapy, and enhancing the central nervous system’s ability to learn ways to use sensory input from a damaged inner ear. VNEL research involves basic and applied neurophysiology, biomedical engineering, clinical investigation and population-based epidemiologic studies. We employ techniques including single-unit electrophysiologic recording; histologic examination; 3-D video-oculography and magnetic scleral search coil measurements of eye movements; microCT; micro MRI; and finite element analysis. Our research subjects include computer models, circuits, animals and humans. For more information about VNEL, click here.
    VNEL is currently recruiting subjects for two first-in-human clinical trials:
    1) The MVI Multichannel Vestibular Implant Trial involves implantation of a “bionic” inner ear stimulator intended to partially restore sensation... of head movement. Without that sensation, the brain’s image- and posture-stabilizing reflexes fail, so affected individuals suffer difficulty with blurry vision, unsteady walking, chronic dizziness, mental fogginess and a high risk of falling. Based on designs developed and tested successfully in animals over the past the past 15 years at VNEL, the system used in this trial is very similar to a cochlear implant (in fact, future versions could include cochlear electrodes for use in patients who also have hearing loss). Instead of a microphone and cochlear electrodes, it uses gyroscopes to sense head movement, and its electrodes are implanted in the vestibular labyrinth. For more information on the MVI trial, click here.
    2) The CGF166 Inner Ear Gene Therapy Trial involves inner ear injection of a genetically engineered DNA sequence intended to restore hearing and balance sensation by creating new sensory cells (called “hair cells”). Performed at VNEL with the support of Novartis and through a collaboration with the University of Kansas and Columbia University, this is the world’s first trial of inner ear gene therapy in human subjects. Individuals with severe or profound hearing loss in both ears are invited to participate. For more information on the CGF166 trial, click here.
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    Research Areas: neuroengineering, audiology, multichannel vestibular prosthesis, balance disorders, balance, vestibular, prosthetics, cochlea, vestibular implant

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