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Displaying 1 to 10 of 14 results for vision

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  • Alfredo Kirkwood Laboratory

    Research in the Alfredo Kirkwood Laboratory is directed toward elucidating the basic mechanisms by which visual experience can modify cortical connections in the visual cortex and how those mechanisms are regulated.

    In visual cortical slices, we investigate two forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These two forms of synaptic plasticity are currently the most comprehensive models of the elementary mechanisms underlying naturally occurring plasticity. We are currently focused on how synaptic inhibition and the action of neuromodulators regulate the induction of LTP and LTD during development. We hope to gain a better understanding of how naturally occurring plasticity is regulated.

    Research Areas: synaptic plasticity, depression, vision, visual cortex, long-term potentiation

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Alfredo Kirkwood, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Cochlear Center for Hearing and Public Health

    The Cochlear Center for Hearing and Public Health is dedicated to training clinicians, researchers and public health experts to study and address the impact that hearing loss has on older adults and public health. We aim to make measured local, national and global impacts through a macro level (e.g., public policy legislation), micro level (e.g., programs to deliver hearing care to individuals in a particular community), and everywhere in between (e.g., influential research publications, etc.) to adhere to our center’s overall mission and vision of effectively optimizing the health and function of an aging society and become the premier global resource for ground-breaking research and training on hearing loss and public health.

    Research Areas: otolaryngology, public health, audiology, gerontology, hearing loss, societal perspectives

  • Dagnelie Ultra Low Vision Lab

    The Ultra Low Vision Lab is interested in assessing and enhancing the functional visual abilities of individuals with ultra-low vision. The lab uses psychophysical experiments to investigate innovative methods for improving visual prostheses.

    Research Areas: cortical and retinal visual prosthesis, retinitis pigmentosa, vision rehabilitation, low vision

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Gislin Dagnelie, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Ophthalmology

  • Ed Connor Laboratory

    The Connor Laboratory focuses on understanding the neural algorithms that make object vision possible. The goal of our research is to explain the neural basis of visual experience and contribute to designs for more powerful machine vision systems and brain-machine interfaces.

    Research Areas: vision, brain-machine interfaces, object perception

    Principal Investigator

    Charles Connor, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Health Technologies

    The APL Health Technologies program's functional restoration focus area includes two portfolios with particular relevance in neurology. The first focuses on motor restoration, using teams with expertise in robotics, microsensors, haptics, artificial intelligence and brain-machine interfaces. One set of projects, currently sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Henry Jackson Foundation, centers on a bionic arm technology that integrates with bone and muscle in amputee patients, restoring a variety of normal functions to the patient like cooking, folding clothing, hand shaking, and hand gestures. This portfolio explores direct brain control of the bionic limb, through work led by Dr. Nathan Crone of Johns Hopkins Neurology and Dr. Pablo Celnik of Johns Hopkins Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Another set of related work aims to restore motor function by better understanding and using brain signals through brain-machine interfaces. This work is current...ly funded by the National Science Foundation and industry partners. Also in the functional restoration focus area is the vision restoration portfolio. In a partnership with Second Sight and the Mann Fund, the work aims to enhance function of a bionic eye, which couples a retinal implant with a computer vision system to restore vision in blind individuals with retinitis pigmentosa. Current work in the human-machine teaming focus area includes a portfolio that is building artificial intelligence systems that improve radiologic and ophthalmic diagnostics. Another portfolio, currently focused in the surgical setting, enhances the physician's ability to visualize and manipulate the physical world, such as with orthopaedic surgery. view less

    Research Areas: robotics, imaging systems, machine learning, data fusion, artificial intelligence

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Adam Cohen, M.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • Hey-Kyoung Lee Lab

    The Hey-Kyoung Lee Lab is interested in exploring the cellular and molecular changes that happen at synapses to allow memory storage. We use various techniques, including electrophysiological recording, biochemical and molecular analysis, and imaging, to understand the cellular and molecular changes that happen during synaptic plasticity.

    Currently, we are examining the molecular and cellular mechanisms of global homeostatic synaptic plasticity using sensory cortices as model systems. In particular, we found that loss of vision elicits global changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the primary visual cortex. Vision loss also triggers specific synaptic changes in other primary sensory cortices, which we postulate underlies sensory compensation in the blind. One of our main research goals is to understand the mechanisms underlying such cross-modal synaptic plasticity.

    We are also interested in elucidating the events that occur in diseased brains. In collaboration with othe...r researchers, we are analyzing various mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, especially focusing on the possible alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms.
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    Research Areas: biochemistry, synaptic plasticity, memory, imaging, vision, molecular biology, Alzheimer's disease

    Principal Investigator

    Hey-Kyoung Lee, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • King-Wai Yau Laboratory

    The King-Wai Yau Laboratory is interested in the area of sensory transduction. Specifically, we study visual and olfactory transductions, which are the processes by which the senses of vision and olfaction are initiated.

    Rods and cones are the retinal photoreceptors that absorb light for initiating image vision. We are studying the cellular and molecular details underlying rod and cone phototransduction.

    Research Areas: phototransduction, vision, sensory transduction, olfactory system

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    King-Wai Yau, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Kristina Nielsen Laboratory

    The Kristina Nielsen Laboratory investigates neural circuits in the visual cortex that are responsible for encoding objects to understand how the visual system performs object recognition. We aim to reveal the fine-scale organization of neural circuits, with an emphasis on higher-level visual areas. We use two-photon microscopy to perform high-resolution functional imaging of visual areas in the non-human primate. We also investigate how the function of higher visual areas changes over the course of brain development in ferrets, by measuring the activity of single neurons in these areas, as well as determining the animal's visual capabilities at various developmental stages. In both types of investigations, we also rely on detailed anatomical techniques to precisely observe how the function of neuronal circuits is related to their structure.

    Research Areas: neural circuits, neurons, imaging, vision, photon microscopy, object perception

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Kristina Nielsen, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Marshall Shuler Laboratory

    The Marshall Shuler Laboratory aims to understand the means by which brain reward systems convey reward value, expectancy, quality, probability and utility, and the rules by which such activity is used to affect synaptic weight within brain networks to encode stimulus-action associations. We use an interdisciplinary approach combining multisite recordings of neural activity, targeted pharmacological manipulation, viral-mediated gene transfer and behavior to study the neural mechanisms of reward-based interval learning in the primary visual cortex.

    Research Areas: neural circuits, reward-based systems, brain, vision, pharmacology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Marshall Shuler, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Singh Lab: Stem Cell Transplant Group

    The goal of the Singh Lab is to cure retinal degeneration due to genetic disease in patients. There are many retinal diseases such as Stargardts, Macular Degeneration, and Retinitis Pigmentosa, that are currently incurable. These diseases damage and eventually eliminate photoreceptors in the retina. The lab's aim is to take healthy photoreceptors derived from stem cells and transplant them into the patient’s retina to replace the lost photoreceptors. The transplanted photoreceptors are left to mature, make connections with the recipient’s remaining retina, and restore vision. Further, the lab is most interested in the cone-photoreceptor rich region of the macula, which is the central zone of the human retina, enabling high-acuity vision for tasks such as facial recognition and reading.

    Research Areas: photoreceptor transplantation, retinal surgery technology and device development, retinal stem cell transplantation, clinical trials in retinal gene therapy

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