The Karakousis Lab is primarily focused on understanding the molecular basis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence and antibiotic tolerance. A systems biology-based approach, including the use of several novel in vitro and animal models, in combination with transcriptional, proteomic, genetic, imaging, and computational techniques, is being used to identify host cytokine networks responsible for immunological control of M. tuberculosis growth, as well as M. tuberculosis regulatory and metabolic pathways required for bacillary growth restriction and reactivation. In particular, we are actively investigating the regulatory cascade involved in the mycobacterial stringent response. Another major focus of the lab is the development of host-directed therapies for TB, with the goal of shortening treatment and improving long-term lung function. Additional research interests include the development of novel molecular assays for the rapid diagnosis of latent TB infection and active TB diseas...e, and for the detection of drug resistance.view more
Research focuses on clinical pharmacology of new anti-tuberculosis regimens with an emphasis on: (1) Phase I clinical trials of new or existing anti-TB drugs including dose escalation trials and studies of drug-drug interactions between anti-TB agents and antiretrovirals to treat HIV; (2) Use of PK/PD analysis and modelling in Phase II tuberculosis clinical treatment trials to determine concentration-effect relationships that will allow for optimization of dosing; and (3) Evaluation of TB and HIV drug concentrations in special populations, such as pregnant women and children; (4) Evaluation of treatment-shortening regimens for drug-sensitive TB and investigational regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant TB; and (5) Translational work involving novel animal models of cavitary pulmonary TB disease to understand drug distribution in diseased lung.
Our research focuses on the biology of the peptidoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism that causes tuberculosis, and Mycobacteroides abscessus, a related bacterium that causes opportunistic infections. We study basic mechanisms associated with peptidoglycan physiology but with an intent to leverage our findings to develop tools that will be useful in the clinic to treat mycobacterial infections.
Peptidoglycan is the exoskeleton of bacteria that not only provides structural rigidity and cell shape but also several vital physiological functions. Breaching this structure is often lethal to bacteria. We are exploring fundamental mechanisms by which bacteria synthesize and preserve their peptidoglycan. Although our lab uses genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches to study the peptidoglycan, we pursue questions irrespective of the expertise required to answer those questions. It is through these studies that we identified synergy between two beta-lactam antibiotics a...gainst select mycobacteria.view more
The Maryam Jahromi Lab researches infectious diseases such as influenza, tuberculosis, endocarditis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, Clostridium difficile and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. We are particularly interested in the impact of the influenza vaccine on systemic inflammation. Recent areas of focus include the relationship between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes, the emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran, and prospects for vaccines and therapies for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.
Work in the Maunank Shah Lab focuses on infectious disease modeling and health economics, and seeks to investigate new strategies for diagnosing HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in areas with limited resources, both domestically and abroad. Our primary focus is TB diagnostics, with studies examining the diagnostic test accuracy, cost-effectiveness and programmatic impact of emerging diagnostics. We have developed mobile health initiatives to incorporate video-based therapy for TB treatment, and we have a longstanding interest in interventions that help to reduce or prevent HIV transmission.
The Natasha Chida Lab investigates methods for using education and curriculum development to improve patient outcomes worldwide, primarily by optimizing education of physicians-in-training. Most recently, our team has worked to develop and evaluate an assessment tool for evaluating internal medicine residents’ understanding of tuberculosis diagnostics. Previous research includes a retrospective cohort study on the high proportion of extrapulmonary TB in a low-prevalence setting as well as an analysis of ways to define clinical excellence in adult infectious disease practice.
Research in the Richard Chaisson Lab primarily examines tuberculosis and HIV infection, with specific focus on global epidemiology, clinical trials, diagnostics and public health interventions. Our recent research has involved evaluating a molecular diagnostic test for tuberculosis in HIV patients; observing TB responses during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis; and examining antiretroviral therapy adherence, virologic and immunologic outcomes in adolescents compared with adults in Southern Africa.
The key research interests in the Robert Bollinger Lab include identifying biological and behavioral risk factors for HIV transmission as well as characterizing the clinical progression and treatment of HIV and related infectious diseases. We also have a long-standing interest in optimizing health care capacity and delivery in settings with limited resources. Our work includes implementing science research projects to explore the effectiveness of initiatives such as task-shifting, clinical education, distance learning and mobile health programs as a way to improve health care in these locations.
Research in the Robert Gilman Lab focuses on disease control. Our work led to the development of microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS), a rapid tuberculosis diagnostic technique. We continue to conduct infectious disease research based at Peru’s Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.
Combining microbiology and bioinformatics, the Cohen Lab conducts translational research on mycobacteria. By application of advanced genomic techniques to the problems of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria, the Cohen Lab aims to develop improved tools for the diagnosis and management of mycobacterial disease.