Dr. Rowan is actively involved in both outcomes and translational research relating to chronic rhinosinusitis and endoscopic skull base surgery. He has a keen interest patient-reported quality of life outcomes as well as those that pertain to smell and taste. Dr. Rowan is also involved in sinus-related clinical trials, pursuing new medical therapies and technological advancements for the treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
The Outcomes After Critical Illness and Surgery Group is focused on understanding and improving patient outcomes after critical illness and surgery. Research projects include improving long-term outcomes research for acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute respiratory failure (ARDS/ARF) patients; examining the long-term outcomes for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) patients; and evaluating the effects of lower tidal volume ventilation and other aspects of critical illness and ICU care on the long-term physical and mental health outcomes of ALI/ARDS patients.
Research in the Quantitative Imaging Technologies lab — a component of the Imaging for Surgery, Therapy and Radiology (I-STAR) Lab — focuses on novel technologies to derive accurate structural and physiological measurements from medical images. Our team works on optimization of imaging systems and algorithms to support a variety of quantitative applications, with recent focus on orthopedics and bone health. For example, we have developed an ultra-high resolution imaging chain for an orthopedic CT system to enable in-vivo measurements of bone microstructure. Our interests also include automated methods to extract quantitative information from images, including anatomical and micro-structural measurements, and shape analysis.
The Robert Wise Lab conducts clinical trials to study chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD). We investigate inhaled corticosteroids in patients with mild to moderate COPD and the effectiveness of anti-inflammatories in allowing lung growth in mild to moderate asthmatic children. Our research includes exploring the efficacy of various treatments for asthmatic women who are pregnant and of lung-volume reduction surgery for emphysema patients. We also conduct studies of the clinical epidemiology, pathobiology and treatment of interstitial lung disease in patients with scleroderma.
Research in the Roberto Salvatori Lab focuses on the genetic causes of isolated growth hormone deficiency (GHD), consequences of untreated GHD, and cortisol excess and deficiency. Current work explores GHD’s relation to obesity and indicates that Cushing's syndrome may be under-recognized in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We recently took part in a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients, a condition that has not been studied previously in a standardized way.
Research in the Saowanee Ngamruengphong Lab focuses on methods for diagnosing and managing gastrointestinal conditions, including premalignant and malignant lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, esophageal cancer, colon polyps, and biliary and pancreatic disease. Our most recent work includes investigating a novel hybrid technique for closure of refractory gastrocutaneous fistula. We also conducted an international multicenter study that compared endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic duct drainage with enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde pancreatography following Whipple surgery.
The goal of the Singh Lab is to cure retinal degeneration due to genetic disease in patients. There are many retinal diseases such as Stargardts, Macular Degeneration, and Retinitis Pigmentosa, that are currently incurable. These diseases damage and eventually eliminate photoreceptors in the retina. The lab's aim is to take healthy photoreceptors derived from stem cells and transplant them into the patient’s retina to replace the lost photoreceptors. The transplanted photoreceptors are left to mature, make connections with the recipient’s remaining retina, and restore vision. Further, the lab is most interested in the cone-photoreceptor rich region of the macula, which is the central zone of the human retina, enabling high-acuity vision for tasks such as facial recognition and reading.
The Spinal Column Biomechanics Laboratory focuses on the study of various spinal pathologies. The Biomechanics Laboratory studies a wide array of tools and techniques in order to advance spinal surgery for the benefit of patients. With a team of researchers, engineers, and neurosurgeons, the Biomechanics Laboratory participates in the newest developments in applied and translational research. Our facility alongside the International Center for Orthopaedic Advancement at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center serves as a premiere learning institute. The laboratory not only conducts novel biomechanical studies but also functions as a teaching facility for neurosurgical trainees interested in mastering highly specialized or technical procedures.The Spinal Column Biomechanics Laboratory specializes in applied mechanics, force vector analysis, spinal instrumentation testing and development of novel spinal reconstructions.
The Spinal Column Surgical Outcomes Laboratory aims to improve the neurological outcomes and functional capacity of patients undergoing spinal surgery. We collect large-scale retrospective patient databases and prospective patient registries to report high-quality data relating to the outcomes of neurosurgical operations. The laboratory participates in the National neurosurgical Quality and Outcomes Database (N2QOD). This multi-institutional collaboration has set forth a 3-year prospective study to benchmark quality and surgical outcome measures across several academic institutions. The Spinal Column Surgical Outcomes Laboratory specializes in biostatistical analysis of large-scale clinical databases, studying the outcomes of traditional and novel spinal procedures, quality control and cost-effectiveness research and clinical trials relating to spinal surgery outcomes.
Research in the Steven Frank Lab focuses on processes to improve blood use and to avoid blood transfusions for patients who do not want to receive blood or blood products. Processes include autologous hemodilution and cell salvage, and treating or averting anemia pre- and post-surgery. Other lab studies have focused on blood conservation, bloodless medicine surgery, the regulation of body temperature during surgery and methods of preventing hypothermia during surgery.
The Boss Lab's research focus is on patient experience, health disparities, and surgical outcomes and utilization. Studies include shared decision-making, communication, and patient/parent-reported outcomes for elective surgery in children; patient satisfaction metrics, outcomes, and health correlates in surgery and pediatrics; patient and family-centered care and communication in surgery and pediatrics; racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in pediatric surgical care utilization and outcomes; and quality and safety in pediatric surgical care
The studies of the Functional Neurosurgery Lab currently test whether neural activity related to the experimental vigilance and conditioned expectation toward pain can be described by interrelated networks in the brain. These two psychological dimensions play an important role in chronic pain syndromes, but their neuroscience is poorly understood. Our studies of spike trains and LFPs utilize an anatomically focused platform with high temporal resolution, which complements fMRI studies surveying the whole brain at lower resolution. This platform to analyze the oscillatory power of structures in the brain, and functional connections (interactions and synchrony and causal interactions) between these structures based upon signals recorded directly from the waking human brain during surgery for epilepsy and movement disorders, e.g. tremor. Our studies have demonstrated that behaviors related to vigilance and expectation are related to electrical signals from the cortex and subcortical struc...tures.
These projects are based upon the combined expertise of Dr. Nathan Crone in recordings and clinical management of the patients studied; Dr. Anna Korzeniewska in the analyses of signals recorded from the brain; Drs. Claudia Campbell, Luana Colloca and Rick Gracely in the clinical psychology and cognitive neurology of the expectation of pain and chronic pain; Dr. Joel Greenspan in quantitative sensory testing; and Dr. Martin Lindquist in the statistical techniques. Dr. Lenz has conducted studies of this type for more than thirty years with continuous NIH funding.view more
Five to 35 percent of spine fusionprocedures fail, even when using the gold standard treatment of grafting bone from the patient's own iliac crest. Fusion failure, otherwise known as pseudoarthrosis, is a major cause of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) and results in significant pain and disability, increasing the need for additional procedures and driving up health care costs. The ultimate goal of the Spinal Fusion Laboratory is to eliminate pseudoarthrosis by using animal models to study various strategies for improving spinal fusion outcomes, including delivery of various growth factors and biological agents; stem cell therapies and tissue engineering approaches.
URobotics is a research and education program that uses advanced technology to improve how urological diseases are diagnosed and treated. The URobotics lab’s main focus is creating robots that aid in real-time, image-guided interventions. This multidisciplinary team of urologists, radiologists and engineers has teamed up to revolutionize how surgeries are performed.
The goals of the Vikram Chib Lab are to understand how the nervous system organizes the control of movement and how incentives motivate our behaviors.
To better understand neurobiological control, our researchers are seeking to understand how motivational cues drive our motor actions.
We use an interdisciplinary approach that combines robotics with the fields of neuroscience and economics to examine neuroeconomics and decision making, motion and force control, haptics and motor learning, image-guided surgery and soft-tissue mechanics.
Research in the Wojciech Zbijewski Lab — a component of the Imaging for Surgery, Therapy and Radiology (I-STAR) Lab — focuses on system modeling techniques to optimize the x-ray CT imaging chain. We’re specifically interested in: 1) using numerical models to improve the task-based optimization of image quality; 2) exploring advanced modeling of physics in statistical reconstruction; 3) using accelerated Monte Carlo methods in CT imaging; and 4) conducting experimental validation of such approaches and applying them to the development of new imaging methods.