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Displaying 21 to 40 of 44 results for proteins

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  • Michael Matunis Lab

    Research in the Michael Matunis Lab focuses on the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-related proteins. We study the covalent conjugation of SUMOs to other cellular proteins, which regulates numerous processes needed for cell growth and differentiation, and which, when defective, can lead to conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative disease and diabetes.

    Research Areas: SUMO proteins, neurodegenerative diseases, cellular biology, proteomics, cancer, diabetes, malaria

    Principal Investigator

    Michael Matunis, Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Miho Iijima Laboratory

    The Miho Iijima Laboratory works to make a further connection between cells' signaling events and directional movement. Our researchers have identified 17 new PH domain-containing proteins in addition to 10 previously known genes in the Dictyostelium cDNA and genome database. Five of these genes contain both the Dbl and the PH domains, suggesting these proteins are involved in actin polymerization. A PTEN homologue has also been identified in Dictyostelium that is highly conserved with the human gene. We are disrupting all of these genes and studying their roles in chemotaxis.

    Research Areas: cell biology, chemotaxis, genomics

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Miho Iijima, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • O'Rourke Lab

    The O’Rourke Lab uses an integrated approach to study the biophysics and physiology of cardiac cells in normal and diseased states.

    Research in our lab has incorporated mitochondrial energetics, Ca2+ dynamics, and electrophysiology to provide tools for studying how defective function of one component of the cell can lead to catastrophic effects on whole cell and whole organ function. By understanding the links between Ca2+, electrical excitability and energy production, we hope to understand the cellular basis of cardiac arrhythmias, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and sudden death.

    We use state-of-the-art techniques, including single-channel and whole-cell patch clamp, microfluorimetry, conventional and two-photon fluorescence imaging, and molecular biology to study the structure and function of single proteins to the intact muscle. Experimental results are compared with simulations of computational models in order to understand the findings in the context of the system as a whole....

    Ongoing studies in our lab are focused on identifying the specific molecular targets modified by oxidative or ischemic stress and how they affect mitochondrial and whole heart function.

    The motivation for all of the work is to understand
    • how the molecular details of the heart cell work together to maintain function and
    • how the synchronization of the parts can go wrong

    Rational strategies can then be devised to correct dysfunction during the progression of disease through a comprehensive understanding of basic mechanisms.

    Brian O’Rourke, PhD, is a professor in the Division of Cardiology and Vice Chair of Basic and Translational Research, Department of Medicine, at the Johns Hopkins University.
    view more

    Research Areas: biophysics, ischemia-reperfusion injury, imaging, electrophysiology, cardiovascular, arrhythmia, physiology, sudden cardiac death, molecular biology, cardiac cells

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Brian O'Rourke, Ph.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Paul Worley Lab

    The Paul Worley Lab examines the molecular basis of learning and memory. In particular, we cloned a set of immediate early genes (IEGs) that are rapidly transcribed in neurons involved in information processing, and that are essential for long term memory. IEG proteins can directly modify synapses and provide insight into cellular mechanisms that support synapse-specific plasticity.

    Research Areas: synaptic plasticity, neurons, memory, learning, immediate early genes

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Paul Worley, M.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Retrovirus Laboratory

    Research in the Retrovirus Laboratory focuses on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. In particular, we study the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to determine the molecular basis for the development of HIV CNS, pulmonary and cardiac disease.

    Research projects include studies of viral molecular genetics and host cell genes and proteins involved in the pathogenesis of disease. We are also interested in studies of lentivirus replication in macrophages and astrocytes and their role in the development of disease. These studies have led us to identify the viral genes that are important in neurovirulence of SIV and the development of CNS disease including NEF and the TM portion of ENV. The mechanisms of the action of these proteins in the CNS are complex and are under investigation. We have also developed a rapid, consistent SIV/macaque model in which we can test the ability of various antiviral and neuroprotective agents to reduce the severity of CNS and ...pulmonary disease. view more

    Research Areas: HIV, genomics, pulmonology, SIV, cardiology, lentivirus

    Principal Investigator

    Janice Clements, Ph.D.

    Department

    Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology

  • Ronald Schnaar Lab

    The Ronald Schnaar Lab is involved in the rapidly expanding field of glycobiology, which studies cell surface glycans, lectins, and their roles in cell physiology.

    Current projects in our lab study include (1) Glycans and glycan-binding proteins in inflammatory lung diseases, (2) Ganglioside function in the brain, and (3) HIV-Tat and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Research Areas: cell physiology, HIV, neurocognitive disorders, glycobiology

  • Rong Li Lab

    Research in the Rong Li Lab aims to better understand the fundamental laws that regulate the behavior and interactions of cellular systems. Our team is currently examining how cells consolidate their damaged proteins and prevent them from spreading freely — work aimed at understanding how to better treat diseases such as Alzheimer’s and ALS. We are also applying insights gained through basic research to better understand diseases such as cancer and polycystic kidney disease.

    Research Areas: cell biology, ALS, kidney diseases, cancer, cellular dynamics, molecular biology, Alzheimer's disease

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Rong Li, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Saraswati Sukumar Lab

    Our lab is focused on using comprehensive gene expression, methylation and sequencing and metabolomics analysis to identify alterations in breast cancer, and exploiting these for early detection and therapy. Among deferentially expressed genes, our lab has focused on the HOX genes. HOX genes are intimately involved in the development of resistance to both chemotherapy and to agents targeting the estrogen receptor. Our work explores the alternate pathways that are activated by HOX proteins leading to this resistance and novel treatments to overcome resistance in both tissue culture and xenograft models. In addition, epigenetically silenced genes and a metabolic reprogramming in tumors also trigger novel early detection and therapeutic strategies. We are testing the utility of differentiation therapy through reactivating RAR-beta in breast cancer using histone deacetylase inhibitors with great success. Also, we are targeting enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis with small ...molecule FDA-approved antimetabolites to achieve antitumor effects. view more

    Research Areas: breast cancer, genetics

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Saraswati Sukumar, Ph.D.

    Department

    Oncology

  • Sean Taverna Laboratory

    The Taverna Laboratory studies histone marks, such as lysine methylation and acetylation, and how they contribute to an epigenetic/histone code that dictates chromatin-templated functions like transcriptional activation and gene silencing. Our lab uses biochemistry and cell biology in a variety of model organisms to explore connections between gene regulation and proteins that write and read histone marks, many of which have clear links to human diseases like leukemia and other cancers. We also investigate links between small RNAs and histone marks involved in gene silencing.

    Research Areas: biochemistry, histone marks, cell biology, leukemia, cancer, epigenetics, eukaryotic cells, gene silencing, RNA

  • Seth Blackshaw Lab

    The Seth Blackshaw Lab uses functional genomics and proteomics to rapidly identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell specification and survival in both the retina and hypothalamus. We have profiled gene expression in both these tissues, from the start to the end of neurogenesis, characterizing the cellular expression patterns of more than 1,800 differentially expressed transcripts in both tissues. Working together with the lab of Heng Zhu in the Department of Pharmacology, we have also generated a protein microarray comprised of nearly 20,000 unique full-length human proteins, which we use to identify biochemical targets of developmentally important genes of interest.

    Research Areas: retina, central nervous system, biochemistry, hypothalamus, proteomics, genomics

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Seth Blackshaw, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Shanthini Sockanathan Laboratory

    The Shanthini Sockanathan Laboratory uses the developing spinal cord as our major paradigm to define the mechanisms that maintain an undifferentiated progenitor state and the molecular pathways that trigger their differentiation into neurons and glia. The major focus of the lab is the study of a new family of six-transmembrane proteins (6-TM GDEs) that play key roles in regulating neuronal and glial differentiation in the spinal cord. We recently discovered that the 6-TM GDEs release GPI-anchored proteins from the cell surface through cleavage of the GPI-anchor. This discovery identifies 6-TM GDEs as the first vertebrate membrane bound GPI-cleaving enzymes that work at the cell surface to regulate GPI-anchored protein function. Current work in the lab involves defining how the 6-TM GDEs regulate cellular signaling events that control neuronal and glial differentiation and function, with a major focus on how GDE dysfunction relates to the onset and progression of disease. To solve the...se questions, we use an integrated approach that includes in vivo models, imaging, molecular biology, biochemistry, developmental biology, genetics and behavior. view more

    Research Areas: glia, biochemistry, neurons, imaging, developmental biology, genomics, spinal cord, behavior, molecular biology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Shanthini Sockanathan, D.Phil.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Shigeki Watanabe Lab

    Research in the Shigeki Watanabe Lab focuses on the cellular and molecular characterizations of rapid changes that occur during synaptic plasticity. Our team is working to determine the composition and distribution of proteins and lipids in the synapse as well as understand how the activity alters their distribution. Ultimately, we seek to discover how the misregulation of protein and lipid compositions lead to synaptic dysfunction. Our studies make use of cutting-edge electron microscopy techniques in combination with biochemical and molecular approaches.

    Research Areas: microscopy, cell biology, proteins, lipids, molecular biology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Shigeki Watanabe, Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Solomon Snyder Laboratory

    Information processing in the brain reflects communication among neurons via neurotransmitters. The Solomon Snyder Laboratory studies diverse signaling systems including those of neurotransmitters and second messengers as well as the actions of drugs upon these processes. We are interested in atypical neurotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and the D-isomers of certain amino acids, specifically D-serine and D-aspartate. Our discoveries are leading to a better understanding of how certain drugs for Parkinson's disease and Hungtington's disease interact with cells and proteins. Understanding how other second messengers work is giving us insight into anti-cancer therapies.

    Research Areas: Huntington's disease, amino acids, neurotransmitters, brain, cancer, nitric oxide, drugs, carbon monoxide, Parkinson's disease, nervous system

  • Steven Claypool Lab

    Research in the Claypool Lab is focused on defining how lipids and membrane proteins interact to establish and maintain normal mitochondrial function and how derangements in this complex relationship result in pathophysiology. We have demonstrated that yeast lacking tafazzin recapitulates all of the phospholipid abnormalities observed in human patients and many of the mitochondrial defects.

    Another major project in our lab focuses on the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier that is required for oxidative phosphorylation. Researchers are studying how these novel interactions help establish normal mitochondrial function, the biochemical details of these associations, and whether disturbances in these assemblies can contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Research Areas: biochemistry, proteomics, lipids, yeast, mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Steven Claypool, Ph.D.

    Department

    Physiology

  • Susan Michaelis Lab

    The Michaelis Laboratory's research goal is to dissect fundamental cellular processes relevant to human health and disease, using yeast and mammalian cell biology, biochemistry and high-throughput genomic approaches. Our team studies the cell biology of lamin A and its role in the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Other research focuses on the core cellular machinery involved in recognition of misfolded proteins. Understanding cellular protein quality control machinery will ultimately help researchers devise treatments for protein misfolding diseases in which degradation is too efficient or not enough.

    Research Areas: biochemistry, cell biology, protein folding, lamin A, aging, genomics, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, yeast

    Principal Investigator

    Susan Michaelis, Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Tamara O'Connor Lab

    The O'Connor Lab studies the molecular basis of infectious disease using Legionella pneumophila pathogenesis as a model system.

    We are looking at the network of molecular interactions acting at the host-pathogen interface. Specifically, we use L. pneumophila pathogenesis to examine the numerous mechanisms by which an intracellular bacterial pathogen can establish infection, how it exploits host cell machinery to accomplish this, and how individual proteins and their component pathways coordinately contribute to disease.

    We are also studying the role of environmental hosts in the evolution of human pathogens. Using genetics and functional genomics, we compare and contrast the repertoires of virulence proteins required for growth in a broad assortment of hosts, how the network of molecular interactions differs between hosts, and the mechanisms by which L. pneumophila copes with this variation.

    Research Areas: infectious disease, Legionella pneumophila, genomics, pathogenesis, molecular biology

    Principal Investigator

    Tamara O'Connor, Ph.D.

    Department

    Biological Chemistry

  • The Burns Lab

    Our research laboratory studies the roles mobile DNAs play in human disease. Our group was one of the first to develop a targeted method for amplifying mobile DNA insertion sites in the human genome, and we showed that these are a significant source of structural variation (Huang et al., 2010). Since that time, our group has continued to develop high throughput tools to characterize these understudied sequences in genomes and to describe the expression and genetic stability of interspersed repeats in normal and malignant tissues. We have developed a monoclonal antibody to one of the proteins encoded for by Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1) and showed its aberrant expression in a wide breadth of human cancers (Rodi? et al., 2014). We have demonstrated acquired LINE-1 insertion events during the evolution of metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other gastrointestinal tract tumors (Rodi? et al., 2015). We have major projects focused on studying functional consequences of inh...erited sequence variants, and exciting evidence that these predispose to cancer risk and other disease phenotypes. Our laboratory is using a combination of genome wide association study (GWAS) analyses, custom RNA-seq analyses, semi-high throughput gene expression reporter assays, and murine models to pursue this hypothesis. view more

    Research Areas: cancer, DNA, malignant tumors

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Kathleen Burns, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • The Sun Laboratory

    The nervous system has extremely complex RNA processing regulation. Dysfunction of RNA metabolism has emerged to play crucial roles in multiple neurological diseases. Mutations and pathologies of several RNA-binding proteins are found to be associated with neurodegeneration in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). An alternative RNA-mediated toxicity arises from microsatellite repeat instability in the human genome. The expanded repeat-containing RNAs could potentially induce neuron toxicity by disrupting protein and RNA homeostasis through various mechanisms.

    The Sun Lab is interested in deciphering the RNA processing pathways altered by the ALS-causative mutants to uncover the mechanisms of toxicity and molecular basis of cell type-selective vulnerability. Another major focus of the group is to identify small molecule and genetic inhibitors of neuron toxic factors using various high-throughput screening platforms. Finally, we are also highly i...nterested in developing novel CRISPR technique-based therapeutic strategies. We seek to translate the mechanistic findings at molecular level to therapeutic target development to advance treatment options against neurodegenerative diseases. view more

    Research Areas: ALS, neurodegeneration, RNA

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Shuying Sun, Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • Tom Woolf Lab

    The Tom Woolf Lab studies the quarter of the genome devoted to membrane proteins. This rapidly growing branch of bioinformatics, which includes computational biophysics, represents the main research direction of our group. We aim to provide insight into critical issues for membrane systems. In pursuit of these goals, we use extensive computer calculations to build an understanding of the relations between microscopic motions and the world of experimental measurements. Our calculations use our own Beowulf computer cluster as well as national supercomputer centers. An especially strong focus has been on the computed motions of proteins and all-atom models of the lipid bilayers that mediate their influence. To compute these motions, we use the molecular dynamics program CHARMM. We hope to use our understanding of the molecular motions for the prediction of membrane protein structures using new computational methods.

    Research Areas: proteomics, genomics, bioinformatics, computational biophysics

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Thomas Woolf, Ph.D.

    Department

    Physiology

  • Wei Dong Gao Lab

    Work in the Wei Dong Gao Lab primarily focuses on heart failure and defining molecular and cellular mechanisms of contractile dysfunction. We use molecular biology and proteomic techniques to investigate the changes that myofilament proteins undergo during heart failure and under drug therapy. We're working to determine the molecular nature of nitroxyl (HNO) modification of tropomyosin.

    Research Areas: heart disease, contractile dysfunction, heart failure, cardiovascular diseases, molecular biology

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