The Machamer Lab is interested in the structure and function of the Golgi complex, an ubiquitous eukaryotic organelle that plays a central role in post-translational processing and sorting of newly synthesized proteins and lipids in the secretory pathway. One goal of our research is to understand the role of this structure in Golgi function by targeting and function of resident Golgi proteins.
The other research interest in the lab is the assembly mechanism of coronaviruses, enveloped viruses that bud into Golgi compartments. We are addressing how coronaviruses target their envelope proteins to Golgi membranes, and how they interact with each other at the virus assembly site. We are also exploring how coronaviruses are exocytosed after they bud into the Golgi lumen. Our long-term goal is to understand the advantages of intracellular assembly for coronaviruses.
The Espenshade Lab uses a multi-organismal and multidisciplinary approach to understand how eukaryotic cells measure insoluble lipids and dissolved gases. We have chosen cholesterol and oxygen as our model molecules, based on their essential roles in cell function and the importance of their proper homeostasis for human health.
Complexity in signaling networks is often derived from co-opting one set of molecules for multiple operations. Understanding how cells achieve such sophisticated processing using a finite set of molecules within a confined space--what we call the "signaling paradox"--is critical to biology and engineering as well as the emerging field of synthetic biology.
In the Inoue Lab, we have recently developed a series of chemical-molecular tools that allow for inducible, quick-onset and specific perturbation of various signaling molecules. Using this novel technique in conjunction with fluorescence imaging, microfabricated devices, quantitative analysis and computational modeling, we are dissecting intricate signaling networks.
In particular, we investigate positive-feedback mechanisms underlying the initiation of neutrophil chemotaxis (known as symmetry breaking), as well as spatio-temporally compartmentalized signaling of Ras and membrane lipids such as phosphoinositides. In parallel,... we also try to understand how cell morphology affects biochemical pathways inside cells. Ultimately, we will generate completely orthogonal machinery in cells to achieve existing, as well as novel, cellular functions. Our synthetic, multidisciplinary approach will elucidate the signaling paradox created by nature.view more
Dr. Martin's research is focused on rapid generation of new knowledge through clinical studies that can be brought back to the bedside to directly inform the care of patients with advanced lipid disorders and those in need of state-of-the-art comprehensive CV prevention. Members of his lab commit to complete ownership of their project, unwavering pursuit of excellence, and thrive on multidisciplinary teamwork. Active projects include the Very Large Database of Lipids, CASCADE FH Registry, MiCORE (Myocardial infarction, COmbined device, Recovery Enhancement), Google Health Search Trial, and mActive-Smoke.
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Research in the Shigeki Watanabe Lab focuses on the cellular and molecular characterizations of rapid changes that occur during synaptic plasticity. Our team is working to determine the composition and distribution of proteins and lipids in the synapse as well as understand how the activity alters their distribution. Ultimately, we seek to discover how the misregulation of protein and lipid compositions lead to synaptic dysfunction. Our studies make use of cutting-edge electron microscopy techniques in combination with biochemical and molecular approaches.
Research in the Claypool Lab is focused on defining how lipids and membrane proteins interact to establish and maintain normal mitochondrial function and how derangements in this complex relationship result in pathophysiology. We have demonstrated that yeast lacking tafazzin recapitulates all of the phospholipid abnormalities observed in human patients and many of the mitochondrial defects.
Another major project in our lab focuses on the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier that is required for oxidative phosphorylation. Researchers are studying how these novel interactions help establish normal mitochondrial function, the biochemical details of these associations, and whether disturbances in these assemblies can contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction.