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  • Andrea Cox Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Andrea Cox, M.D., Ph.D.
    Medicine

    Research in the Andrea Cox Lab explores the immune response in chronic viral infections, with a... focus on HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In our studies, we examine the role of the immune response upon exposure to HCV by examining responses to HCV in a longitudinal, prospective group of high-risk individuals. This enables us to compare the innate, humoral and cellular immune responses to infection with clearance versus persistence. Through our findings, we seek to identify mechanisms of protective immunity against HCV infection and improve HCV vaccine design. view more

    Research Areas: virology, vaccines, viral immunology, HIV, hepatitis C, T cells
  • Arturo Casadevall Lab

    The Arturo Casadevall Lab uses a multidisciplinary approach to explore two key topics within mi...crobiology and immunology: how microbes cause disease and how hosts can protect themselves against those microbes. Much of our research focuses on the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, which frequently causes lung infections in people with impaired immunity. We also work with the microorganism Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that causes anthrax and is frequently used in biological warfare. Our goal is to devise antibody-based countermeasures to protect against this and other similar threats. view more

    Research Areas: microbiology, immunology, vaccines, cryptococcus neoformans, tuberculosis
  • Cervical Dysplasia Research Lab

    Lab Website

    We are interested in how immune responses occur in the cervix. The focus of our translational ...research is on developing immune therapies for disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection causes more cancers than any other virus in the world. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer caused by HPV, and although we have known how to screen for it for over half a century, it remains the second most common cause of cancer death in women. Although the preventive vaccines are a public health milestone, they prevent HPV infections, but are not designed to make immune responses to treat HPV. We are testing different strategies to make immune responses that could treat HPV disease. Our dedicated researchers are working to extend the techniques used in HPV vaccine development to the creation of vaccines targeting other cancers with defined tumor antigens. view more

    Research Areas: cervical cancer, HPV, cancer vaccines
  • David Sack Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    David Sack, M.D.
    Medicine

    Research in the David Sack Lab focuses on enteric infections. Our team has worked to develop la...boratory detection methods to better understand the epidemiology of these agents. We also work to create appropriate clinical management strategies, such as antibiotics and rehydration methods, for enteric infections. Our work has included participating in the development of vaccines for a range of bacterial infections, including rotavirus, cholera and enterotoxigenic E. coli. view more

    Research Areas: epidemiology, international health, cholera, infectious disease, diarrhea, malaria, tuberculosis
  • David Thompson Lab

    Researchers in the David Thompson Lab examine the outcomes of patients treated in intensive car...e units (ICUs), patient safety efforts, quality improvement efforts, and multidisciplinary teamwork and safety curriculum development. We're taking part in a study aimed at reducing hospital-acquired infections among cardiovascular surgery patients. Our investigators also participated in a clinical research collaboration that saw an 81 percent reduction in bloodstream infections related to central lines. view more

    Research Areas: medical education, patient safety, quality improvement, infections, patient outcomes, ICU
  • Erica Johnson Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Erica Johnson, M.D.
    Medicine

    Research in the Erica Johnson Lab investigates infection control in military deployment environ...ments as well as infections that are associated with combat trauma. We explore topics such as HIV outcomes, gender-based health issues and disparities in care. view more

    Research Areas: gender-based health issues, infectious disease, combat trauma, HIV, deployment infection control, health disparities
  • Grant (Xuguang) Tao Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Grant Tao, M.D., Ph.D., M.S.
    Medicine

    Research in the Grant (Xuguang) Tao Lab explores environmental and occupational epidemiology to...pics, including workers' compensation and injuries, and nosocomial infections. We conduct research through clinical trials and systematic literature reviews, and also use cancer registry data and GIS applications in environmental epidemiological research. Our recent studies have explored topics such as the effectiveness of lumbar epidural steroid injections following lumbar surgery, the effect of physician-dispensed medication on workers' compensation claim outcomes and how the use of opioid and psychotropic medications for workers' compensation claims impacts lost work time. view more

    Research Areas: epidemiology, drug safety, cancer, nosocomial infections, GIS applications
  • Gregory Kirk Lab

    Research in the Gregory Kirk Lab examines the natural history of viral infections — particularl...y HIV and hepatitis viruses — in the U.S. and globally. As part of the ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) study, our research looks at a range of pathogenetic, clinical behavioral issues, with a special focus on non-AIDS-related outcomes of HIV, including cancer and liver and lung diseases. We use imaging and clinical, genetic, epigenetic and proteomic methods to identify and learn more about people at greatest risk for clinically relevant outcomes from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections. Our long-term goal is to translate our findings into targeted interventions that help reduce the disease burden of these infections. view more

    Research Areas: global health, Hepatitis, Africa, AIDS, cancer, HIV, drugs, liver diseases
  • Haughey Lab: Neurodegenerative and Neuroinfectious Disease

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Norman Haughey, Ph.D.
    Neurology
    Neurosurgery

    Dr. Haughey directs a disease-oriented research program that address questions in basic neurobi...ology, and clinical neurology. The primary research interests of the laboratory are:

    1. To identify biomarkers markers for neurodegenerative diseases including HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, Multiple Sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. In these studies, blood and cerebral spinal fluid samples obtained from ongoing clinical studies are analyzed for metabolic profiles through a variety of biochemical, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic techniques. These biomarkers can then be used in the diagnosis of disease, as prognostic indicators to predict disease trajectory, or as surrogate markers to track the effectiveness of disease modifying interventions.
    2. To better understand how the lipid components of neuronal, and glial membranes interact with proteins to regulate signal transduction associated with differentiation, motility, inflammatory signaling, survival, and neuronal excitability.
    3. To understand how extracellular vesicles (exosomes) released from brain resident cells regulate neuronal excitability, neural network activity, and peripheral immune responses to central nervous system damage and infections.
    4. To develop small molecule therapeutics that regulate lipid metabolism as a neuroprotective and restorative strategy for neurodegenerative conditions.
    view more

    Research Areas: multiple sclerosis, PTSD, HAND, HIV
  • IndoUS Clinical Research

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Amita Gupta, M.D., M.H.S.
    Medicine

    Our IndoUS team, based both in Baltimore and in India, specializes in international clinical re...search (cohort studies and clinical trials), public health implementation science and education in infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), vaccine preventable illnesses, antimicrobial resistant infections, and more recently COVID. Since 2003, our work has been focused primarily on India, where we are engaged in several Indo-JHU and international research collaborations. We partner with several leading medical and research institutions in India (e.g. BJGMC, DY Patil, Hinduja Hospital, KEM, Bharati Vidyapeeth, NIRT, JIPMER, CMC, Medanta, IISER, YRG, IIT), as well as others in sub-Saharan Africa, US and Brazil. We are actively involved in the following consortia: 1) Indo-US Vaccine Action Program sponsored RePORT India TB research consortium, which is funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the government of India, Department of Biotechnology. 2) RePORT International TB Research Consortium, a multilateral global consortia for TB research, 3) US NIH funded multi-country HIV and TB trials consortia of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Trials Network (IMPAACT) Network, 4) NIH and AmFAR funded IeDea HIV/TB Working Group and the Treat Asia-IeDEA HIV and TB epidemiology databases, and 5) CDC SHEPHERD AMR studies.

    Our group has been awarded research grants from the US NIH, US CDC, UNITAID, Indian government, and several philanthropic foundations to investigate infectious diseases of importance to India and beyond.
    view more

    Research Areas: international health, infectious disease, antimicrobial resistance, HIV, COVID in adults including pregnant women and children, tuberculosis
  • J. Marie Hardwick Laboratory

    Lab Website

    Our research is focused on understanding the basic mechanisms of programmed cell death in disea...se pathogenesis. Billions of cells die per day in the human body. Like cell division and differentiation, cell death is also critical for normal development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Apoptosis and other forms of cell death are required for trimming excess, expired and damaged cells. Therefore, many genetically programmed cell suicide pathways have evolved to promote long-term survival of species from yeast to humans. Defective cell death programs cause disease states. Insufficient cell death underlies human cancer and autoimmune disease, while excessive cell death underlies human neurological disorders and aging. Of particular interest to our group are the mechanisms by which Bcl-2 family proteins and other factors regulate programmed cell death, particularly in the nervous system, in cancer and in virus infections. Interestingly, cell death regulators also regulate many other cellular processes prior to a death stimulus, including neuronal activity, mitochondrial dynamics and energetics. We study these unknown mechanisms.

    We have reported that many insults can trigger cells to activate a cellular death pathway (Nature, 361:739-742, 1993), that several viruses encode proteins to block attempted cell suicide (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94: 690-694, 1997), that cellular anti-death genes can alter the pathogenesis of virus infections (Nature Med. 5:832-835, 1999) and of genetic diseases (PNAS. 97:13312-7, 2000) reflective of many human disorders. We have shown that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins can be converted into killer molecules (Science 278:1966-8, 1997), that Bcl-2 family proteins interact with regulators of caspases and regulators of cell cycle check point activation (Molecular Cell 6:31-40, 2000). In addition, Bcl-2 family proteins have normal physiological roles in regulating mitochondrial fission/fusion and mitochondrial energetics to facilitate neuronal activity in healthy brains.
    view more

    Research Areas: cell death
  • Jonathan Zenilman Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Jonathan Zenilman, M.D.
    Medicine

    The Jonathan Zenilman lab conducts research related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We... are working to develop biological markers for sexual behavior to use in other research. The lab studies sexual risk behaviors in highly vulnerable populations and studies datasets from the Baltimore City Health Department to understand STD trends and behaviors. Additionally, we study nosocomial infections at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, with a focus on developing an antimicrobial control program. We also conduct clinical research related to the natural history and microbiology of chronic wounds in the outpatient setting. view more

    Research Areas: behavioral research, biomarkers, sexually transmitted diseases, nosocomial infections
  • Lamichhane Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Gyanu Lamichhane, Ph.D.
    Medicine

    Our research focuses on the biology of the peptidoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the org...anism that causes tuberculosis, and Mycobacteroides abscessus, a related bacterium that causes opportunistic infections. We study basic mechanisms associated with peptidoglycan physiology but with an intent to leverage our findings to develop tools that will be useful in the clinic to treat mycobacterial infections.

    Peptidoglycan is the exoskeleton of bacteria that not only provides structural rigidity and cell shape but also several vital physiological functions. Breaching this structure is often lethal to bacteria. We are exploring fundamental mechanisms by which bacteria synthesize and preserve their peptidoglycan. Although our lab uses genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches to study the peptidoglycan, we pursue questions irrespective of the expertise required to answer those questions. It is through these studies that we identified synergy between two beta-lactam antibiotics against select mycobacteria.
    view more

    Research Areas: biochemistry, infectious disease, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, genomics, tuberculosis, RNA
  • Lisa Maragakis Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H.
    Medicine

    Researchers in the Lisa Maragakis Lab are interested in health care-acquired infections and ant...imicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. We are particularly interested in the epidemiology, prevention and management of these infections. view more

    Research Areas: epidemiology, infections, health care-acquired infections, resistant organisms
  • Michael Melia Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Michael Melia, M.D.
    Medicine

    Research in the Michael Melia Lab focuses primarily on nocardia infections, Lyme disease and he...patitis C. Our studies have included key topics such as risk factors for incident infections during hepatitis C treatment, racial differences in eligibility for hepatitis C treatment and misdiagnosis of Lyme arthritis using the Borrelia burgdorferi immunoblot testing method. We also have a longstanding interest in medical education and work on curriculum to improve the quality of education for medical students and interns. view more

    Research Areas: medical education, nocardia infections, infectious disease, AIDS, HIV, Lyme disease, hepatitis C
  • Noah Lechtzin Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Noah Lechtzin, M.D., M.H.S.
    Medicine

    Research in the Noah Lechtzin Lab investigates several important aspects of cystic fibrosis (CF...), including the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in CF patients and new therapy options for individuals with CF. Our research into new CF therapies has included studies on home electronic symptom and lung function monitoring, transbronchial needle aspiration and bedside percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. We also explore the role of metabolic complications in CF patients by examining how the disease is impacted by factors such as vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis and testosterone deficiency. view more

    Research Areas: osteoporosis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary medicine, metabolism, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, testosterone
  • Retrovirus Laboratory

    Principal Investigator:
    Janice Clements, Ph.D.
    Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology

    Research in the Retrovirus Laboratory focuses on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of len...tivirus infections. In particular, we study the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to determine the molecular basis for the development of HIV CNS, pulmonary and cardiac disease.

    Research projects include studies of viral molecular genetics and host cell genes and proteins involved in the pathogenesis of disease. We are also interested in studies of lentivirus replication in macrophages and astrocytes and their role in the development of disease. These studies have led us to identify the viral genes that are important in neurovirulence of SIV and the development of CNS disease including NEF and the TM portion of ENV. The mechanisms of the action of these proteins in the CNS are complex and are under investigation. We have also developed a rapid, consistent SIV/macaque model in which we can test the ability of various antiviral and neuroprotective agents to reduce the severity of CNS and pulmonary disease.
    view more

    Research Areas: HIV, genomics, pulmonology, SIV, cardiology, lentivirus
  • Sara Cosgrove Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Sara Cosgrove, M.D.
    Medicine

    The Sara Cosgrove Lab researches how infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria affect patie...nts. We are interested in the methods needed to make sure patients receive the best possible antibiotic treatment, including the development of tools and programs to promote the rational use of antimicrobials. We also study the epidemiology and management of S. aureus bacteremia. view more

    Research Areas: epidemiology, antimicrobials, antibiotics, resistant organisms
  • Schneck Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Jonathan Schneck, M.D., Ph.D.
    Pathology

    Effective immune responses are critical for control of a variety of infectious disease includin...g bacterial, viral and protozoan infections as well as in protection from development of tumors. Central to the development of an effective immune response is the T lymphocyte which, as part of the adaptive immune system, is central in achieving sterilization and long lasting immunity. While the normal immune responses is tightly regulated there are also notable defects leading to pathologic diseases. Inactivity of tumor antigen-specific T cells, either by suppression or passive ignorance allows tumors to grow and eventually actively suppress the immune response. Conversely, hyperactivation of antigen-specific T cells to self antigens is the underlying basis for many autoimmune diseases including: multiple sclerosis; arthritis; and diabetes. Secondary to their central role in a wide variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic responses my lab takes a broad-based approach to studying T cell responses. view more

    Research Areas: t-cell responses, pathologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, pathology, immune system
  • Sean Berenholtz Lab

    Lab Website

    Work in the Sean Berenholtz Lab focuses on patient safety, ICU care, quality health care and ev...idence-based medicine. Two notable and successful projects include the National On The Cusp: Stop BSI project, which was implemented in 47 states with the goal of eliminating bloodstream infections, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)-funded Keystone ICU project, which improved communication and teamwork and reduced hospital-acquired infections in more than 100 ICUs in Michigan. One recent study focused on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), one of the most common type of health care-associated infections in the ICU. Existing VAP prevention intervention bundles vary widely on the interventions, but our research team described a structured approach for developing a new VAP prevention bundle. view more

    Research Areas: patient safety, quality improvement, infections, ICU, evidence-based medicine, quality of care
  • Stuart C. Ray Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Stuart Ray, M.D.
    Medicine

    Chronic viral hepatitis (due to HBV and HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide, and a...n increasing cause of death in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Our laboratory studies are aimed at better defining the host-pathogen interactions in these infections, with particular focus on humoral and cellular immune responses, viral evasion, inflammation, fibrosis progression, and drug resistance. We are engaged in synthetic biology approaches to rational vaccine development and understanding the limits on the extraordinary genetic variability of HCV. view more

    Research Areas: immunology, Hepatitis, AIDS, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, liver diseases, synthetic biology
  • The Sfanos Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Karen Sfanos, Ph.D., M.S.
    Pathology

    The Sfanos Lab studies the cellular and molecular pathology of prostate disease at the Johns Ho...pkins University School of Medicine. We are specifically interested in agents that may lead to chronic inflammation in the prostate, such as bacterial infections and prostatic concretions called corpora amylacea. Our ongoing studies are aimed at understanding the influence of prostate infections and inflammation on prostate disease including prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The laboratory also focuses on the influence of the microbiome on prostate disease development, progression, and/or resistance to therapy. view more

    Research Areas: disease resistance, prostate cancer, prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate disease, chronic inflammation
  • Thomas Grader-Beck Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Thomas Grader-Beck, M.D., Ph.D.
    Medicine

    Research in the Thomas Grader-Beck Lab aims to understand the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmu...ne diseases—particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome—by taking a translational approach. Autoantibodies (antibodies that target self-molecules) are believed to contribute significantly to the disease process. We are studying mechanisms that may make self-structures immunogenic. We theorize that certain post-translational antigen modifications, which can occur in infections or malignant transformation, result in the expression of neoepitopes that spread autoimmunity in the proper setting. The team has combined studies that employ a number of mouse strains, certain gene-deficient mice and human biological specimens. view more

    Research Areas: Sjogren's syndrome, antibodies, autoimmune diseases, self-molecules, systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Todd Dorman Lab

    Research conducted in the Todd Dorman Lab examines the use of informatics in intensive care set...tings as it relates to remote patient monitoring, safety and management strategies. Specific areas of interest include the surgical stress response; aminoglycoside antibiotics; fungal infections; renal failure; pharmacokinetic models of drug administration; and ICU triage and its impact on disaster preparedness. view more

    Research Areas: fungal infections, patient safety, informatics, disaster preparedness, aminoglycoside antibiotics, surgical stress response, ICU, patient monitoring
  • William G. Nelson Laboratory

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    William Nelson, M.D., Ph.D.
    Oncology

    Normal and neoplastic cells respond to genome integrity threats in a variety of different ways.... Furthermore, the nature of these responses are critical both for cancer pathogenesis and for cancer treatment. DNA damaging agents activate several signal transduction pathways in damaged cells which trigger cell fate decisions such as proliferation, genomic repair, differentiation, and cell death. For normal cells, failure of a DNA damaging agent (i.e., a carcinogen) to activate processes culminating in DNA repair or in cell death might promote neoplastic transformation. For cancer cells, failure of a DNA damaging agent (i.e., an antineoplastic drug) to promote differentiation or cell death might undermine cancer treatment.

    Our laboratory has discovered the most common known somatic genome alteration in human prostatic carcinoma cells. The DNA lesion, hypermethylation of deoxycytidine nucleotides in the promoter of a carcinogen-defense enzyme gene, appears to result in inactivation of the gene and a resultant increased vulnerability of prostatic cells to carcinogens.
    Studies underway in the laboratory have been directed at characterizing the genomic abnormality further, and at developing methods to restore expression of epigenetically silenced genes and/or to augment expression of other carcinogen-defense enzymes in prostate cells as prostate cancer prevention strategies.

    Another major interest pursued in the laboratory is the role of chronic or recurrent inflammation as a cause of prostate cancer. Genetic studies of familial prostate cancer have identified defects in genes regulating host inflammatory responses to infections.
    A newly described prostate lesion, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), appears to be an early prostate cancer precursor. Current experimental approaches feature induction of chronic prostate inflammation in laboratory mice and rats, and monitoring the consequences on the development of PIA and prostate cancer.
    view more

    Research Areas: cellular biology, cancer, epigenetics, DNA
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