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Displaying 21 to 35 of 35 results for infections

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  • Michael Melia Lab

    Research in the Michael Melia Lab focuses primarily on nocardia infections, Lyme disease and hepatitis C. Our studies have included key topics such as risk factors for incident infections during hepatitis C treatment, racial differences in eligibility for hepatitis C treatment and misdiagnosis of Lyme arthritis using the Borrelia burgdorferi immunoblot testing method. We also have a longstanding interest in medical education and work on curriculum to improve the quality of education for medical students and interns.

    Research Areas: medical education, nocardia infections, infectious disease, AIDS, HIV, Lyme disease, hepatitis C

    Principal Investigator

    Michael Melia, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Noah Lechtzin Lab

    Research in the Noah Lechtzin Lab investigates several important aspects of cystic fibrosis (CF), including the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in CF patients and new therapy options for individuals with CF. Our research into new CF therapies has included studies on home electronic symptom and lung function monitoring, transbronchial needle aspiration and bedside percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. We also explore the role of metabolic complications in CF patients by examining how the disease is impacted by factors such as vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis and testosterone deficiency.

    Research Areas: osteoporosis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary medicine, metabolism, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, testosterone

    Principal Investigator

    Noah Lechtzin, M.D., M.H.S.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Patrick Breysse Lab

    Research in the Patrick Breysse Lab seeks to better understand the biological, chemical and physical factors that can impact a patient’s health. Our team is currently studying the effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution on childhood asthma, respiratory tract infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other respiratory conditions. We also conduct research on secondhand smoke exposure around the world and have participated in a range of health and exposure studies in Peru, Nepal, Mongolia, Columbia and India.

    Research Areas: epidemiology, pollution, asthma, COPD, pediatrics

    Principal Investigator

    Patrick Breysse, M.H.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Raymond Reid Lab

    Research in the Raymond Reid Lab focuses on community health and pediatric infectious diseases among Native American populations; epidemiologic studies of enteric infections, Haemophilus influenzae, and pneumococcus; and field testing of vaccines and treatments.

    Research Areas: epidemiology, community health, vaccines, infectious disease, enteric infections

    Principal Investigator

    Raymond Reid, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Retrovirus Laboratory

    Research in the Retrovirus Laboratory focuses on the molecular virology and pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. In particular, we study the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to determine the molecular basis for the development of HIV CNS, pulmonary and cardiac disease.

    Research projects include studies of viral molecular genetics and host cell genes and proteins involved in the pathogenesis of disease. We are also interested in studies of lentivirus replication in macrophages and astrocytes and their role in the development of disease. These studies have led us to identify the viral genes that are important in neurovirulence of SIV and the development of CNS disease including NEF and the TM portion of ENV. The mechanisms of the action of these proteins in the CNS are complex and are under investigation. We have also developed a rapid, consistent SIV/macaque model in which we can test the ability of various antiviral and neuroprotective agents to reduce the severity of CNS and ...pulmonary disease. view more

    Research Areas: HIV, genomics, pulmonology, SIV, cardiology, lentivirus

    Principal Investigator

    Janice Clements, Ph.D.

    Department

    Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology

  • Robert Gilman Lab

    Research in the Robert Gilman Lab focuses on disease control. Our work led to the development of microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS), a rapid tuberculosis diagnostic technique. We continue to conduct infectious disease research based at Peru’s Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

    Research Areas: international health, infectious disease, infections, infection control, parasitic diseases, disease control

    Principal Investigator

    Robert Gilman, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Sara Cosgrove Lab

    The Sara Cosgrove Lab researches how infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria affect patients. We are interested in the methods needed to make sure patients receive the best possible antibiotic treatment, including the development of tools and programs to promote the rational use of antimicrobials. We also study the epidemiology and management of S. aureus bacteremia.

    Research Areas: epidemiology, antimicrobials, antibiotics, resistant organisms

    Principal Investigator

    Sara Cosgrove, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Schneck Lab

    Effective immune responses are critical for control of a variety of infectious disease including bacterial, viral and protozoan infections as well as in protection from development of tumors. Central to the development of an effective immune response is the T lymphocyte which, as part of the adaptive immune system, is central in achieving sterilization and long lasting immunity. While the normal immune responses is tightly regulated there are also notable defects leading to pathologic diseases. Inactivity of tumor antigen-specific T cells, either by suppression or passive ignorance allows tumors to grow and eventually actively suppress the immune response. Conversely, hyperactivation of antigen-specific T cells to self antigens is the underlying basis for many autoimmune diseases including: multiple sclerosis; arthritis; and diabetes. Secondary to their central role in a wide variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic responses my lab takes a broad-based approach to studying T cell re...sponses. view more

    Research Areas: t-cell responses, pathologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, pathology, immune system

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Jonathan Schneck, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • Sean Berenholtz Lab

    Work in the Sean Berenholtz Lab focuses on patient safety, ICU care, quality health care and evidence-based medicine. Two notable and successful projects include the National On The Cusp: Stop BSI project, which was implemented in 47 states with the goal of eliminating bloodstream infections, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)-funded Keystone ICU project, which improved communication and teamwork and reduced hospital-acquired infections in more than 100 ICUs in Michigan. One recent study focused on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), one of the most common type of health care-associated infections in the ICU. Existing VAP prevention intervention bundles vary widely on the interventions, but our research team described a structured approach for developing a new VAP prevention bundle.

    Research Areas: patient safety, quality improvement, infections, ICU, evidence-based medicine, quality of care

  • Stuart C. Ray Lab

    Chronic viral hepatitis (due to HBV and HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide, and an increasing cause of death in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Our laboratory studies are aimed at better defining the host-pathogen interactions in these infections, with particular focus on humoral and cellular immune responses, viral evasion, inflammation, fibrosis progression, and drug resistance. We are engaged in synthetic biology approaches to rational vaccine development and understanding the limits on the extraordinary genetic variability of HCV.

    Research Areas: immunology, Hepatitis, AIDS, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, liver diseases, synthetic biology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Stuart Ray, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • The Sfanos Lab

    The Sfanos Lab studies the cellular and molecular pathology of prostate disease at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. We are specifically interested in agents that may lead to chronic inflammation in the prostate, such as bacterial infections and prostatic concretions called corpora amylacea. Our ongoing studies are aimed at understanding the influence of prostate infections and inflammation on prostate disease including prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The laboratory also focuses on the influence of the microbiome on prostate disease development, progression, and/or resistance to therapy.

    Research Areas: disease resistance, prostate cancer, prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate disease, chronic inflammation

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Karen Sfanos, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • The Transplant and Oncology Infectious Diseases (TOID) Center

    The mission of the Transplant and Oncology Infectious Diseases (TOID) Center is to expand institutional expertise in clinical and academic activities focused on infectious complications in transplant (solid organ and stem cell) and oncology patients at Johns Hopkins medical institutions. Key efforts include developing standardized algorithms for the prevention and treatment of infections in these vulnerable patients and to establish an expanded infrastructure to facilitate clinical and translational studies at TOID. Current research projects focus on diagnostics for invasive fungal infections and specialized studies of the pathogenesis of candidiasis and aspergillosis.

    Research Areas: transplants, candidiasis, fungal infections, infectious disease, cancer, aspergillosis

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Kieren Marr, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Thomas Grader-Beck Lab

    Research in the Thomas Grader-Beck Lab aims to understand the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases—particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome—by taking a translational approach. Autoantibodies (antibodies that target self-molecules) are believed to contribute significantly to the disease process. We are studying mechanisms that may make self-structures immunogenic. We theorize that certain post-translational antigen modifications, which can occur in infections or malignant transformation, result in the expression of neoepitopes that spread autoimmunity in the proper setting. The team has combined studies that employ a number of mouse strains, certain gene-deficient mice and human biological specimens.

    Research Areas: Sjogren's syndrome, antibodies, autoimmune diseases, self-molecules, systemic lupus erythematosus

    Principal Investigator

    Thomas Grader-Beck, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Todd Dorman Lab

    Research conducted in the Todd Dorman Lab examines the use of informatics in intensive care settings as it relates to remote patient monitoring, safety and management strategies. Specific areas of interest include the surgical stress response; aminoglycoside antibiotics; fungal infections; renal failure; pharmacokinetic models of drug administration; and ICU triage and its impact on disaster preparedness.

    Research Areas: fungal infections, patient safety, informatics, disaster preparedness, aminoglycoside antibiotics, surgical stress response, ICU, patient monitoring

  • William G. Nelson Laboratory

    Normal and neoplastic cells respond to genome integrity threats in a variety of different ways. Furthermore, the nature of these responses are critical both for cancer pathogenesis and for cancer treatment. DNA damaging agents activate several signal transduction pathways in damaged cells which trigger cell fate decisions such as proliferation, genomic repair, differentiation, and cell death. For normal cells, failure of a DNA damaging agent (i.e., a carcinogen) to activate processes culminating in DNA repair or in cell death might promote neoplastic transformation. For cancer cells, failure of a DNA damaging agent (i.e., an antineoplastic drug) to promote differentiation or cell death might undermine cancer treatment.

    Our laboratory has discovered the most common known somatic genome alteration in human prostatic carcinoma cells. The DNA lesion, hypermethylation of deoxycytidine nucleotides in the promoter of a carcinogen-defense enzyme gene, appears to result in inactivation of th...e gene and a resultant increased vulnerability of prostatic cells to carcinogens.
    Studies underway in the laboratory have been directed at characterizing the genomic abnormality further, and at developing methods to restore expression of epigenetically silenced genes and/or to augment expression of other carcinogen-defense enzymes in prostate cells as prostate cancer prevention strategies.

    Another major interest pursued in the laboratory is the role of chronic or recurrent inflammation as a cause of prostate cancer. Genetic studies of familial prostate cancer have identified defects in genes regulating host inflammatory responses to infections.
    A newly described prostate lesion, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), appears to be an early prostate cancer precursor. Current experimental approaches feature induction of chronic prostate inflammation in laboratory mice and rats, and monitoring the consequences on the development of PIA and prostate cancer.
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    Research Areas: cellular biology, cancer, epigenetics, DNA

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    William Nelson, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Oncology

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