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  • Neuroimaging and Modulation Laboratory (NIMLAB)

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    John Desmond, Ph.D., M.S.
    Neurology

    The neuroimaging and Modulation Laboratory (NIMLAB) investigates neural correlates of cognition... and behavior using neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We are looking in depth at the contributions of the cerebellum and cerebro-cerebellar circuits to cognition; the effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption on cognition and brain activation underlying cognitive function; how aging in humans affects neural systems that are important for associative learning and stimulus awareness; and the integration of transcranial magnetic stimulation with functional MRI. view more

    Research Areas: cognition, alcohol, functional magnetic resonance imaging, imaging, aging, neuroscience, neuroimaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Neuromodulation and Advanced Therapies Center

    We investigate the brain networks and neurotransmitters involved in symptoms of movement disord...ers, such as Parkinson's disease, and the mechanisms by which modulating these networks through electrical stimulation affects these symptoms. We are particularly interested in the mechanisms through which neuromodulation therapies like deep brain stimulation affect non-motor brain functions, such as cognitive function and mood. We use imaging of specific neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, to understand the changes in brain chemistry associated with the clinical effects of deep brain stimulation and to predict which patients are likely to have changes in non-motor symptoms following DBS. Through collaborations with our neurosurgery colleagues, we explore brain function by making recordings during DBS surgery during motor and non-motor tasks. Dr. Mills collaborates with researchers in the Department of Neurosurgery, the Division of Geriatric and Neuropsychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and in the Division of Nuclear Medicine within the Department of Radiology to translate neuroimaging and neurophysiology findings into clinical applications. view more

    Research Areas:

    Molecular imaging of effects of deep brain stimulation on cognitive function in Parkinson's dis...ease view more

    , Trajectories and types of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, Effects of neuromodulation on impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, Parkinson's disease,

    Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on mood disorders and cognitive dysfunction ...in Parkinson's disease view more

    ,

    Relationship between patient-reported and objective cognitive impairments in Parkinson's diseas...e view more

  • Nicholas Dalesio Lab

    Research in the Nicholas Dalesio Lab is currently examining pre-surgical predictors of post-sur...gical respiratory complications in children with obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing; the impact of anesthesia and pharmacological agents on upper airway physiology; and techniques for pediatric airway imaging. view more

    Research Areas: children, respiratory system, obstructive sleep apnea, anesthesia, pediatrics, sleep disorders
  • Nicholas Flavahan Lab

    Lab Website

    The Nicholas Flavahan Lab primarily researches the cellular interactions and subcellular signal...ing pathways that control normal vascular function and regulate the initiation of vascular disease. We use biochemical and molecular analyses of cellular mediators and cell signaling mechanisms in cultured vascular cells, while also conducting physiological assessments and fluorescent microscopic imaging of signaling systems in isolated blood vessels. A major component of our research involves aterioles, tiny blood vessles that are responsible for controlling the peripheral resistance of the cardiovascular system, which help determine organ blood flow. view more

    Research Areas: biochemistry, Raynaud's phenomenon, vascular biology, vasospasms
  • Nicholas Zachos Lab

    Principal Investigator:
    Nicholas Zachos, Ph.D.
    Medicine

    Researchers in the Nicholas Zachos Lab work to understand variations in protein trafficking tha...t occur during pathophysiological conditions that cause ion and water transport that result in diarrhea. We recently identified a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway responsible for elevated intracellular calcium-mediated inhibition of NHE3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. We use advanced imaging techniques, including confocal and multi-photon microscopy, to characterize protein trafficking of intestinal transporters. We also perform functional assays using fluorescent probes (ratiometric and non-ratiometric) to measure ion transport in cell culture models, intact intestinal tissues and human small intestinal enteroids. view more

    Research Areas: imaging, protein trafficking, diarrhea, bioinformatics, molecular biology
  • O'Connor Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Daniel O'Connor, Ph.D., M.A.
    Neuroscience

    How do brain dynamics give rise to our sensory experience of the world? The O'Connor lab works ...to answer this question by taking advantage of the fact that key architectural features of the mammalian brain are similar across species. This allows us to leverage the power of mouse genetics to monitor and manipulate genetically and functionally defined brain circuits during perception. We train mice to perform simple perceptual tasks. By using quantitative behavior, optogenetic and chemical-genetic gain- and loss-of-function perturbations, in vivo two-photon imaging, and electrophysiology, we assemble a description of the relationship between neural circuit function and perception. We work in the mouse tactile system to capitalize on an accessible mammalian circuit with a precise mapping between the sensory periphery and multiple brain areas. Our mission is to reveal the neural circuit foundations of sensory perception; to provide a framework to understand how circuit dysfunction causes mental and behavioral aspects of neuropsychiatric illness; and to help others fulfill creative potential and contribute to human knowledge. view more

    Research Areas: brain, mental illness, neuroscience, perception
  • O'Rourke Lab

    Lab Website
    Principal Investigator:
    Brian O'Rourke, Ph.D.
    Medicine

    The O’Rourke Lab uses an integrated approach to study the biophysics and physiology of cardiac ...cells in normal and diseased states.

    Research in our lab has incorporated mitochondrial energetics, Ca2+ dynamics, and electrophysiology to provide tools for studying how defective function of one component of the cell can lead to catastrophic effects on whole cell and whole organ function. By understanding the links between Ca2+, electrical excitability and energy production, we hope to understand the cellular basis of cardiac arrhythmias, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and sudden death.

    We use state-of-the-art techniques, including single-channel and whole-cell patch clamp, microfluorimetry, conventional and two-photon fluorescence imaging, and molecular biology to study the structure and function of single proteins to the intact muscle. Experimental results are compared with simulations of computational models in order to understand the findings in the context of the system as a whole.

    Ongoing studies in our lab are focused on identifying the specific molecular targets modified by oxidative or ischemic stress and how they affect mitochondrial and whole heart function.

    The motivation for all of the work is to understand
    • how the molecular details of the heart cell work together to maintain function and
    • how the synchronization of the parts can go wrong

    Rational strategies can then be devised to correct dysfunction during the progression of disease through a comprehensive understanding of basic mechanisms.

    Brian O’Rourke, PhD, is a professor in the Division of Cardiology and Vice Chair of Basic and Translational Research, Department of Medicine, at the Johns Hopkins University.
    view more

    Research Areas: biophysics, ischemia-reperfusion injury, imaging, electrophysiology, cardiovascular, arrhythmia, physiology, sudden cardiac death, molecular biology, cardiac cells
  • Pediatric Cardiology Core Imaging Laboratory

    Principal Investigator:
    Shelby Kutty, M.D., Ph.D., M.S.
    Medicine

    The lab’s assets include three MRI systems available for pediatric studies, cardiac imaging pro...cessing, cardiovascular imaging and therapeutic ultrasound. A robust echocardiogram program conducts 10,000 transthoracic echocardiograms and 1,300 fetal echocardiograms per year, and maintains a database with 10 years of data. view more

    Research Areas: cardiac imaging, pediatric cardiology
  • Psychiatric Neuroimaging

    Psychiatric Neuroimaging (PNI) is active in neuropsychiatric research using imaging methods suc...h as MRI, fMRI, PET and DTI to understand the mechanisms and brain networks underlying human cognition. PNI faculty have published hundreds of papers on a variety of brain disorders which include but are not limited to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, and eating disorders. Faculty in the division have been awarded numerous peer-reviewed grants by the National Institutes of Health, foundations and other funding organizations.
    view more

    Research Areas: brain disorders
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