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Displaying 1 to 10 of 23 results for environment

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  • Adam D. Sylvester Lab

    Research in the Adam D. Sylvester Lab primarily focuses on the way in which humans and primates move through the environment, with the aim of reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of extinct hominins and other primates. We use a quantitative approach that involves the statistical analysis of three-dimensional biological shapes, specifically musculoskeletal structures, and then link the anatomy to function and function to locomotor behavior.

    Research Areas: anatomy, biomechanics, locomotion, evolution, skeletal morphology

  • Alan Scott Lab

    Research in the Alan Scott Lab involves several important areas of genomics. Our team collaborates on a study to investigate the exon and genome sequence variants that determine phenotype, with a specific focus on the genetic bases of cleft lip and palate. We are also involved in assessing and improving genomic technologies to provide next-generation sequencing and analysis of sequence data to the clinical environment. In addition, we have a longstanding interest in the problem of gene annotation and the evolutionary genomics of vertebrates, especially endangered species.

    Research Areas: evolutionary genomics, sequence analysis, genomics, genome annotation, genomic technologies, cleft lip and palate

    Principal Investigator

    Alan Scott, Ph.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Brendan Cormack Laboratory

    The Brendan Cormack Laboratory studies fungal pathogenesis, particularly the host-pathogen interaction for the yeast pathogen Candida glabrata.

    We are trying to identify virulence genes (genes that evolved in response to the host environment) by screening transposon mutants of C. glabrata for mutants that are specifically altered in adherence to epithelial cells, in survival in the presence of macrophages and PMNs. We also screen mutants directly in mice for those unable to colonize or persist in the normal target organs (liver, kidney and spleen).

    We also focus research on a family of genes--the EPA genes--that allow the organism to bind to host cells. Our research shows that a subset of them are able to mediate adherence to host epithelial cells. We are trying to understand the contribution of this family to virulence in C. glabrata by figuring out what the ligand specificity is of different family members, how genes are normally regulated during infection, and what mechanism...s normally act to keep the genes transcriptionally silent and how that silence is regulated. view more

    Research Areas: candida glabrata, pathogenesis, virulence genes, yeast, molecular biology

    Principal Investigator

    Brendan Cormack, Ph.D.

    Department

    Molecular Biology and Genetics

  • Brown Lab

    The Brown Lab is focused on the function of the cerebral cortex in the brain, which underlies our ability to interact with our environment through sensory perception and voluntary movement. Our research takes a bottom-up approach to understanding how the circuits of this massively interconnected network of neurons are functionally organized, and how dysfunction in these circuits contributes to neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. By combining electrophysiological and optogenetic approaches with anatomical and genetic techniques for identifying cell populations and pathways, the Brown Lab is defining the synaptic interactions among different classes of cortical neurons and determining how long-range and local inputs are integrated within cortical circuits. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, corticospinal and spinal motor neurons progressively degenerate. The Brown Lab is examining how abnormal ...activity within cortical circuits contributes to the selective degeneration of corticospinal motor neurons in an effort to identify new mechanisms for treating this disease. Abnormalities in the organization of cortical circuits and synapses have been identified in genetic and anatomical studies of neuropsychiatric disease. We are interested in the impact these abnormalities have on cortical processing and their contribution to the disordered cognition typical of autism and schizophrenia. view more

    Research Areas: autism, neurodegenerative diseases, brain, electrophysiology, ALS, schizophrenia, cerebral cortex, optogenetics

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Solange Brown, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Christopher B. Ruff Lab

    Research in the Christopher B. Ruff Lab focuses on biomechanics and primate locomotion, skeletal growth and development, osteoporosis, skeletal remodeling and the evolution of the hominoid postcranium. We primarily explore how variation in skeletal morphology is related to mechanical forces applied during life. Our studies have shown that the skeleton adapts to its mechanical environment, both developmentally and through evolutionary time, by altering its structural organization.

    Research Areas: anatomy, osteoporosis, biomechanics, locomotion, evolution, skeletal morphology

  • Clare Rock Lab

    Dr. Clare Rock is an assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Associate hospital Epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Faculty Member at Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality. Her research interest focuses the prevention of pathogen transmission in the hospital environment. This includes novel strategies of improving patient room cleaning and disinfection, including human factors engineering approaches, and conducting robust clinical trials to examine effectiveness of "no touch" novel technologies such as UV-C light. She has particular interest in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae transmission in the hospital environment, including outbreak management, and transmission and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile. Her other area of interest is diagnostic stewardship, and the behavioral, cultural and human factors aspects of implementation of initiatives to enhance appropriate use of ...diagnostic tests. She leads a national initiative, as part of the High Value Practice Academic Alliance, examining strategies for appropriate testing for Clostridium difficile. This is a wider implementation of work that Dr. Rock conducted with The Johns Hopkins Health System facilities.

    Dr. Rock has multiple sources of grant funding including from the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and industry. Dr. Rock is Vice Chair of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network, and serves on the SHEA research committee. Dr. Rock earned her M.B.B.Ch. at the University College Dublin School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, and her MS masters of clinical science of research at the University of Maryland, where she received the MS scholar award for epidemiology.
    view more

    Research Areas: diagnostic stewardship, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), infections, infection control, hospital epidemiology, quality of care

    Principal Investigator

    Clare Rock, M.B.B.Ch.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Craig Pollack Lab

    Research in the Craig Pollack Lab focuses on cancer prevention and control, particularly prostate cancer. Our work aims to understand how the organization environment of health care affects the type and quality of care that patients receive. Other work investigates the broader social context of health and health care— specifically housing, financial hardship and socioeconomic status.

    Research Areas: sociodemographics, prostate, cancer, quality of care

    Principal Investigator

    Craig Pollack, M.D., M.H.S.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Deidra Crews Lab

    Research in the Deidra Crews Lab focuses on health disparities in chronic kidney disease. We have studied how social determinants of health, such as poverty and healthful food access, affect disparities in kidney disease outcomes. Our research on end-stage renal disease includes studies of the best timing and environment to initiate dialysis among vulnerable populations.

    Research Areas: poverty, chronic kidney disease, health disparities

    Principal Investigator

    Deidra Crews, M.D., Sc.M.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Erwin Lab

    Schizophrenia, autism and other neurological disorders are caused by a complex interaction between inherited genetic risk and environmental experiences. The overarching goal of the group are to reveal molecular mechanisms of gene by environment interactions related to altered neural development and liability for brain disorders. Our research uses a hybrid of human stem cell models, post-mortem tissue and computational approaches to interrogate the contribution of epigenetic regulation and somatic mosaicism to brain diseases. Our previous work has demonstrated that the human brain exhibits extensive genetic variability between neurons within the same brain, termed "somatic mosaicism" due to mobile DNA elements which mediate large somatic DNA copy number variants. We study environment-responsive mechanisms and consequences for somatic mosaicism and are discovering the landscape of somatic mosaicism in the brain. We also study the epigenetic regulation of cell specification and activity-d...ependent states within the human dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and striatum. view more

    Research Areas: autism, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, stem cells, Developmental Neuroscience, Neurobiology of Disease, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models, Organoids, schizophrenia, genomics, Dystonia, Epigenomics

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Jennifer Erwin, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • James Fackler Lab

    Research in the James Fackler Lab explores the operational side of the hospital environment, seeking ways to optimize patient care and physician decision-making. Our work includes building a mathematical model of how patients move throughout a hospital, which we believe will help hospitals better predict the influx of emergency cases and therefore optimize resource preparation and scheduling of elective procedures. We also research data acquisition and data mining in the operating room and intensive care unit, with a goal of identifying patterns and trends.

    Research Areas: hospital-based medical practices, data analysis, decision making

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