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Michael Klag Lab
The Michael Klag Lab focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Our research determined that the U.S. was experiencing an epidemic of end-stage kidney disease, pinpointed the incidence of kidney disease and published scholarship on risk factors for kidney disease such as race, diabetes and socioeconomic status. Our Precursors Study has shown that serum cholesterol measured at age 22 years is a predictor for midlife cardiovascular disease, a finding that has influenced policy about cholesterol screening in young adults. We also research health behaviors that lead to hypertension and study how differences in these behaviors affect urban and non-urban populations.
Naresh Punjabi Lab
The Naresh Punjabi Lab primarily studies sleep apnea, epidemiology, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our current research focuses on the epidemiology of sleep apnea with a particular emphasis on associated sequelae, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We have been part of the multi-center Sleep Heart Health Study, an epidemiological study on the longitudinal effects of sleep apnea on hypertension, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Our lab is examining the independent effects of intermittent hypoxia on various pathways to help elucidate the links between sleep apnea, insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction.
The Nauder Faraday Lab investigates topics within perioperative genetic and molecular medicine. We explore thrombotic, bleeding and infectious surgical complications. Our goal is to uncover the molecular determinants of outcome in surgical patients, which will enable surgeons to better personalize a patient’s care in the perioperative period. Our team is funded by the National Institutes of Health to research platelet phenotypes, the pharmacogenomics of antiplatelet agents for preventing cardiovascular disease, and the genotypic determinants of aspirin response in high-risk families.
The Nicholas Flavahan Lab primarily researches the cellular interactions and subcellular signaling pathways that control normal vascular function and regulate the initiation of vascular disease. We use biochemical and molecular analyses of cellular mediators and cell signaling mechanisms in cultured vascular cells, while also conducting physiological assessments and fluorescent microscopic imaging of signaling systems in isolated blood vessels. A major component of our research involves aterioles, tiny blood vessles that are responsible for controlling the peripheral resistance of the cardiovascular system, which help determine organ blood flow.
Research in the Nicola Heller Lab focuses on the immunobiology of macrophages. Our team explores how these cells impact diseases with an inflammatory element, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity. Using a variety of techniques, including molecular and cellular biology, biochemistry, mouse models and more, we study the role of IL-4/IL-13 signaling in asthma and allergic disease, as well as the role of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. Currently, we are researching the links between asthma and obesity, with a focus on the roles of gender and race.
The O’Rourke Lab uses an integrated approach to study the biophysics and physiology of cardiac cells in normal and diseased states.
Research in our lab has incorporated mitochondrial energetics, Ca2+ dynamics, and electrophysiology to provide tools for studying how defective function of one component of the cell can lead to catastrophic effects on whole cell and whole organ function. By understanding the links between Ca2+, electrical excitability and energy production, we hope to understand the cellular basis of cardiac arrhythmias, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and sudden death.
We use state-of-the-art techniques, including single-channel and whole-cell patch clamp, microfluorimetry, conventional and two-photon fluorescence imaging, and molecular biology to study the structure and function of single proteins to the intact muscle. Experimental results are compared with simulations of computational models in order to understand the findings in the context of the system as a whole....
Ongoing studies in our lab are focused on identifying the specific molecular targets modified by oxidative or ischemic stress and how they affect mitochondrial and whole heart function.
The motivation for all of the work is to understand
• how the molecular details of the heart cell work together to maintain function and
• how the synchronization of the parts can go wrong
Rational strategies can then be devised to correct dysfunction during the progression of disease through a comprehensive understanding of basic mechanisms.
Brian O’Rourke, PhD, is a professor in the Division of Cardiology and Vice Chair of Basic and Translational Research, Department of Medicine, at the Johns Hopkins University. view more
Paul Ladenson Lab
The Paul Ladenson Lab studies the application of thyroid hormone analogues for treating cardiovascular disease; novel approaches to thyroid cancer diagnosis and management; and the health economic analyses related to thyroid patient care.
Platelet Physiology Research Lab
Dr. Williams' research focuses on platelet physiology particularly as it relates to acute coronary syndromes and depression. Her laboratory specifically examines platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis to measure platelet activation, platelet luminescence as a measure of the platelet release reaction, many Elisa preparations in order to measure platelet function, platelet genotyping to determine the presence of certain platelet polymorphisms, and various other assays to distinguish mechanisms of platelet dysfunction. The goal for her cardiovascular platelet laboratory is to identify the etiology of platelet dysfunction in many disease states and apply methods that may improve this dysfunction that can eventually be translated to therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease. Scientific techniques performed in the lab include: flow cytometric analysis, platelet microparticle identification, and protein immunoprecipitation among other techniques.
The Pluznick Lab is interested in the role that chemosensation plays in regulating physiological processes, particularly in the kidney and the cardiovascular system. We have found that sensory receptors (olfactory receptors, taste receptors, and other G-protein coupled receptors) are expressed in the kidney and in blood vessels, and that individual receptors play functional roles in whole-animal physiology. We are currently working to identify the full complement of sensory receptors found in the kidney, and are working to understand the role that each receptor plays in whole-animal physiology by using a variety of in vitro (receptor localization, ligand screening) and in vivo (whole-animal physiology) techniques.
The Post Lab is involved in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a collaborative study of the characteristics of subclinical cardiovascular disease (that is, disease detected non-invasively before it has produced clinical signs and symptoms) and the risk factors that predict progression to clinically overt cardiovascular disease or progression of the subclinical disease.
As MESA researchers, we study a diverse, population-based sample of 6,814 asymptomatic men and women aged 45-84. Approximately 38 percent of the recruited participants are white, 28 percent African-American, 22 percent Hispanic, and 12 percent Asian, predominantly of Chinese descent.
Participants were recruited from six field centers across the United States, including Johns Hopkins University. Each participant received an extensive physical exam to determine a number of conditions, including coronary calcification, ventricular mass and function, flow-mediated endothelial vasodilation, standard coron...ary risk factors, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and psychosocial factors.
Selected repetition of subclinical disease measures and risk factors at follow-up visits have allowed study of the progression of disease. Participants are being followed for identification and characterization of cardiovascular disease events, including acute myocardial infarction and other forms of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and congestive heart failure; for cardiovascular disease interventions; and for mortality.
Wendy S. Post, MD, MS, is an associate faculty, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, and a professor of medicine. view less