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Displaying 21 to 40 of 127 results for cancer

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  • Cullman Chemoprotection Center

    Research in the Cullman Chemoprotection Center focuses on developing nutritional strategies for chronic disease prevention in humans. Our work draws from natural product chemistry, enzymology, nutritional epidemiology and clinical research. A number of our studies look at the glucosinolates and isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables and in Moringa oleifera, also known as the “drumstick tree.” Our team has found that broccoli sprouts are a rich source of the enzyme inducers that detoxify carcinogens and that two of the inducers — sulforaphane in broccoli and isothiocyanate in Moringa oleifera — act as strong antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori, which can cause peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer.

    Research Areas: nutrition, chemoprotection, cancer, disease prevention, chemistry

  • Cynthia Sears Laboratory

    Work in the Cynthia Sears Laboratory focuses on the bacterial contributions to the development of human colon cancer and the impact of the microbiome on other cancers and the therapy of cancer. The current work involves mouse and human studies to define how enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, pks+ Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, biofilms and the colonic microbiota induce chronic colonic inflammation and colon cancer. Prospective human studies of the microbiome and biofilms in screening colonoscopy are in progress as are studies to determine if and how the microbiome impacts the response of individuals with cancer to immunotherapy and other cancer therapies.

    Research Areas: epidemiology, AIDS, microbiome, colon cancer, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, chronic colonic inflammation

    Principal Investigator

    Cynthia Sears, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Daria Gaykalova Lab

    The Daria Gakalova Lab defines the functional role of epigenetics in transcriptional regulation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) progression. To evaluate the whole-genome distribution of various histone marks, her team is using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) for primary tissues, a method recently developed by her lab. The research group of Daria Gaykalova was the first to demonstrate the cancer-specific distribution of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac marks and their role in cancer-related gene expression in HNSCC. The research showed that an aberrant chromatin alteration is a central event in carcinogenesis and that the therapeutic control of chromatin structure can prevent the primary of secondary cancerization. Further preliminary data suggest that the differential enrichment of these disease-specific histone marks and DNA methylation correlate with alternative splicing events (ASE) formation. For this project, Dr. Gaykalova... and her team employed a novel bioinformatical tool for the detection of cancer-specific ASEs. Through thorough functional validation of the individual ASEs, the lab demonstrated that each of them has a unique mechanism of malignant transformation of the cells. Due to high disease specificity, ASEs represent the perfect biomarkers of the neoantigens and have direct application to clinical practice. view less

    Research Areas: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Human papillomavirus, Alternative splicing, epigenetics, Chromatin structure, Cancer genomics, head and neck cancer

  • David Cooper Lab

    Research in the David S. Cooper Lab focuses primarily on hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Topics of recent published studies include the NTCTCS staging systems for differentiated thyroid cancer, radioiodine remnant ablation in low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer, and the link between race/ethnicity and the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis in young Americans.

    Research Areas: neoplasms, hyperthyroidism, cancer, thyroidectomy, thyroid, Graves’ disease, hypothyroidism

    Principal Investigator

    David Cooper, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Dermot Maher Lab

    Research in the Dermot Maher Lab focuses on cancer pain management. We aim to characterize the immunosuppression that occurs with the use of certain pharmacologic pain therapies, including opioids. We also study the relationship between this pharmacologically induced immunosuppression and the rate of manifestation and recurrence of certain types of malignancies. Our goal is to gain a broader understanding of the benefits and side effects of pain medication pharmacology in order to help patients suffering from painful and complex conditions, such as cancer, manage their symptoms more effectively.

    Research Areas: opioids, pain management, cancer, immunosuppression, pharmacology

  • Devreotes Laboratory

    The Devreotes Laboratory is engaged in genetic analysis of chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Our long-term goal is a complete description of the network controlling chemotactic behavior. We are analyzing combinations of deficiencies to understand interactions among network components and carrying out additional genetic screens to identify new pathways involved in chemotaxis. A comprehensive understanding of this fascinating process should lead to control of pathological conditions such as inflammation and cancer metastasis.

    Research Areas: biochemistry, cell biology, chemotaxis, cancer, genomics, inflammation

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Peter Devreotes, Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Dmitri Artemov Lab

    The Artemov lab is within the Division of Cancer Imaging Research in the Department of Radiology and Radiological Science. The lab focuses on 1) Use of advanced dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI and activated dual-contrast MRI to perform image-guided combination therapy of triple negative breast cancer and to assess therapeutic response. 2) Development of noninvasive MR markers of cell viability based on a dual-contrast technique that enables simultaneous tracking and monitoring of viability of transplanted stems cells in vivo. 3) Development of Tc-99m and Ga-68 angiogenic SPECT/PET tracers to image expression of VEGF receptors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis and can be important therapeutic targets. 4) Development of the concept of “click therapy” that combines advantages of multi-component targeting, bio-orthogonal conjugation and image guidance and preclinical validation in breast and prostate cancer models.

    Research Areas: VEGF receptors image expression, SPECT/PET tracers, tracking stem cells in vivo, triple-negative breast cancer, image-guided combination therapy, MRI, noninvasive MR markers, cancer imaging

  • Douglas Ball Lab

    The Douglas Ball Lab conducts clinical trials and pre-clinical laboratory studies of thyroid cancer. Our clinical trials, performed in collaboration with research staff in the upper aero-digestive group in the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, have included protocols for advanced radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and medullary thyroid cancer. Our pre-clinical research, conducted with Dr. Nelkin, Dr. Agrawal and other Kimmel Cancer Center researchers, includes pathogenesis and mechanisms of treatment resistance in medullary thyroid cancer, and pathogenesis and immune-directed therapy of anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Research Areas: thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Principal Investigator

    Douglas Ball, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Drew Pardoll Lab

    The Pardoll Lab focuses on the regulation of antigen-specific T cell responses and studies approaches to modify these responses for immunotherapy. Pardoll has a particular interest in cancer immunology and his lab’s studies on basic immunologic mechanisms have led to the development and design of a number of cancer vaccines and discovery of key checkpoint ligands and receptors, such as PD-L2, LAG-3 and neuritin, many of which are being targeted clinically.

    Our primary pursuits are discovering and elucidating new molecules that regulate immune responses, investigating the biology of regulatory T cells, and better understanding the specific biochemical signatures that allow a patient’s T cells to selectively target cancer cells.

    Research Areas: tumor antigens, cancer, immunotherapy, regulatory T cells, T cells

    Principal Investigator

    Drew Pardoll, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Medicine
    Oncology
    Pathology

  • Drug Discovery Group

    Barbara Slusher, M.A.S., Ph.D., leads a 20-member veteran drug discovery team of medicinal chemists, assay developers, pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacokinetic/drug metabolism experts, who identify novel drug targets arising from JHU faculty’s research and translate them into new, small molecule drug therapies.

    Her team collaborates extensively with faculty at the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy and leads the BKI immunotherapy drug discovery core, aimed at developing new immune-targeting drug therapies for laboratory and clinical testing at Johns Hopkins.

    Research Areas: glutamine antagonist, drug discovery, cancer, immunotherapy, cancer metabolism

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Barbara Slusher, M.A.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Oncology

  • Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer Laboratory

    The goal of the lab's research is to identify molecular abnormalities that can improve the outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer and those at risk of developing this disease. Much of our work is focused on translational research evaluating markers and marker technologies that can help screen patients with an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.

    Thus, marker efforts have been focused mostly on identifying markers of advanced precancerous neoplasia (PanINs and IPMNs) that could improve our ability to effectively screen patients at risk of developing pancreatic cancer. We lead or participate in a number of clinical research protocols involved in the screening and early detection of pancreatic neoplasia including the CAPS clinical trials. We maintain a large repository of specimens from cases and controls with and without pancreatic disease and use this repository to investigate candidate markers of pancreatic cancer for their utility to predict pancreatic cancer risk.
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    In addition, we have been working to identify familial pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes and identified BRCA2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene in 1996. We participate in the PACGENE consortium and the familial pancreatic cancer sequencing initiative. My lab also investigates pancreatic cancer genetics, epigenetics, molecular pathology, tumor stromal interactions and functional analysis of candidate genes and miRNAs. Dr. Goggins is the principal investigator of a phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the Parp inhibitor, olaparib along with irinotecan and cisplatin for patients with pancreatic cancer.
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    Research Areas: pancreatic cancer

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Michael Goggins, M.B.B.Ch., M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Eberhart, Rodriguez and Raabe Lab

    Utilizing a combination of tissue-based, cell-based, and molecular approaches, our research goals focus on abnormal telomere biology as it relates to cancer initiation and tumor progression, with a particular interest in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) phenotype. In addition, our laboratories focus on cancer biomarker discovery and validation with the ultimate aim to utilize these novel tissue-based biomarkers to improve individualized prevention, detection, and treatment strategies.

    Research Areas: cancer therapies, preventing cancer metastasis, cancer, cancer biomarkers

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Charles Eberhart, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • Eberhart, Rodriguez and Raabe Lab

    Utilizing a combination of tissue-based, cell-based, and molecular approaches, our research goals focus on abnormal telomere biology as it relates to cancer initiation and tumor progression, with a particular interest in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) phenotype. In addition, our laboratories focus on cancer biomarker discovery and validation with the ultimate aim to utilize these novel tissue-based biomarkers to improve individualized prevention, detection, and treatment strategies.

    Research Areas: stem cells, eye tumor, tumor cell metastasis, brain tumor

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Charles Eberhart, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • Elizabeth M. Jaffee, M.D.

    Current projects include:

    The evaluation of mechanisms of immune tolerance to cancer in mouse models of breast and pancreatic cancer. We have characterized the HER-2/neu transgenic mouse model of spontaneous mammary tumors.
    This model demonstrates immune tolerance to the HER-2/neu gene product. This model is being used to better understand the mechanisms of tolerance to tumor. In addition, this model is being used to develop vaccine strategies that can overcome this tolerance and induce immunity potent enough to prevent and treat naturally developing tumors. More recently, we are using a genetic model of pancreatic cancer developed to understand the early inflammatory changes that promote cancer development.

    The identification of human tumor antigens recognized by T cells. We are using a novel functional genetic approach developed in our laboratory. Human tumor specific T cells from vaccinated patients are used to identify immune relevant antigens that are chosen... based on an initial genomic screen of overexpressed gene products. Several candidate targets have been identified and the prevelence of vaccine induced immunity has been assessed .
    This rapid screen to identify relevant antigenic targets will allow us to begin to dissect the mechanisms of tumor immunity induction and downregulation at the molecular level in cancer patients. More recently, we are using proteomics to identify proteins involved in pancreatic cancer development. We recently identified Annexin A2 as a molecule involved in metastases.

    The analysis of antitumor immune responses in patients enrolled on vaccine studies. The focus is on breast and pancreatic cancers. We are atttempting to identify in vitro correlates of in vivo antitumor immunity induced by vaccine strategies developed in the laboratory and currently under study in the clinics.
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    Research Areas: immunology, cancer, anti-cancer drugs

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D.

    Department

    Oncology

  • Fan Pan Lab

    The Fan Pan Lab uses molecular, biochemical and mouse genetic approaches to explore the molecular mechanisms controlling the development, lineage stability and function of T cell subsets. The team currently focuses on regulatory and effector T cells, which are important for immune control or immune activation. Research in the lab will help scientists better understand the mechanisms behind immune regulation and will aid in the development of new immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

    Research Areas: cancer, immunotherapy, T cells

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Fan Pan, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Oncology

  • Fisher Biomarker Research Laboratory

    The Veltri-Partin Fisher Biomarker Laboratory strives to improve the early detection, staging, monitoring and prognosis of prostate cancer and other urologic cancers with the use of biomarkers.

    Research Areas: prostate cancer, biomarkers, urologic cancers

    Principal Investigator

    Alan Partin, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Urology

  • Florin Selaru Lab

    Research interests in the Florin Selaru Lab comprise the molecular changes associated with the transition from inflammatory states in the GI tract (colon, stomach, biliary tree) to frank cancers. In addition, our current research—funded by the AGA, FAMRI and the Broad Foundation—works to further the understanding of cancer development and progression in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Research Areas: gastroenterology, cancer, inflammation, molecular biology

    Principal Investigator

    Florin Selaru, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Follow the Leader: Specialized Cancer Cells Lead Collective Invasion (Ewald Lab)

    Research in the Ewald laboratory starts from a simple question: Which cells in a breast tumor are the most dangerous to the patient and most responsible for metastatic disease? To answer this question, we developed novel 3-D culture assays to allow real-time analysis of invasion. Our data reveal that K14+ cancer cells play a central role in metastatic disease and suggest that the development of clinical strategies targeting these cells will provide novel breast cancer treatments.

    Research Areas: breast cancer, cellular biology, molecular biology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Andrew Ewald, Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Francis Giardiello Lab

    Research in the Francis Giardiello Lab focuses on the study of cancer and cancer chemoprevention in the gastrointestinal tract. This has included the investigation of the genetic basis of familial colorectal cancer and the use of genetic testing in the hereditary forms of colorectal cancer. We have a continuing interest in the study of the genotypic-phenotypic correlations in polyposis syndromes, which include familial adenomatous polyposis, juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    Research Areas: gastrointestinal system, colorectal cancer, cancer, genomics, polyposis syndromes

    Principal Investigator

    Francis Giardiello, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Franck Housseau Lab

    The Franck Housseau Lab focuses on the role of the microbiome in colorectal tumorigenesis and on developing a better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment. The lab is currently working to define the biomarkers of a pre-existing antitumor immune response in metastatic colorectal cancer to define a population of patients eligible for checkpoint blockade therapies.

    Research Areas: microbiology, tumor immunology, microbiome, colorectal cancer, cancer, colon cancer, tumor microenvironment, immunotherapy

    Principal Investigator

    Franck Housseau, Ph.D.

    Department

    Oncology

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