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Displaying 61 to 80 of 89 results for brain

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  • Ocular Motor Physiology Laboratory

    Our research is directed toward how the brain controls the movements of the eyes (including eye movements induced by head motion) using studies in normal human beings, patients and experimental animals. The focus is on mechanisms underlying adaptive ocular motor control. More specifically, what are mechanisms by which the brain learns to cope with the changes associated with normal development and aging as well as the damage associated with disease and trauma? How does the brain keep its eye movement reflexes properly calibrated? Our research strategy is to make accurate, quantitative measures of eye movements in response to precisely controlled stimuli and then use the analytical techniques of the control systems engineer to interpret the findings.

    Research areas: 1) learning and compensation for vestibular disturbances that occur either within the labyrinth or more centrally within the brain, 2) the mechanisms by which the brain maintains correct alignment of the eyes to prevent d...iplopia and strabismus, and 3) the role of ocular proprioception in localizing objects in space for accurate eye-hand coordination.
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    Research Areas: diplopia, Labyrinth, eye movement, strabismus, vestibular

  • Pankaj Jay Pasricha Lab

    Researchers in the Pankaj Jay Pasricha Lab are interested in the molecular mechanisms of visceral pain and restoration of enteric neural function with novel strategies, including neural stem cell transplants. Recent research has focused on the enteric nervous system and gut-brain axis, and the complexity of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Another recent study indicates that patients with underlying small intestinal bacterial overgrowth have significant delays in small bowel transit time as compared to those without, while another explored the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide cryotherapy for treatment of neoplastic Barrett's esophagus.

    Research Areas: gastroenterology, stem cells, neurogastroenterology, pancreatitis, pain, Barrett's esophagus, motility disorders

    Principal Investigator

    Jay Pasricha, M.B.B.S., M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Pediatric Cerebral Palsy and Epilepsy Lab

    The team headed by Shenandoah “Dody” Robinson, M.D., professor of neurosurgery, neurology and pediatrics, studies perinatal brain injury and repair. Employing developmentally age-appropriate models, the lab investigates neurological consequences of extremely preterm birth, including cerebral palsy, chronic pain, cognitive and behavioral impairment, epilepsy and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity.

    Research Areas: pediatric neurology, pediatric epilepsy, cerebral palsy

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Dody Robinson, M.D.

    Department

    Neurology
    Neurosurgery

  • Peter Agre Lab

    Work in the Peter Agre Lab focuses on the molecular makeup of human diseases, particularly malaria, hemolytic anemias and blood group antigens. In 2003, Dr. Agre earned the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering aquaporin water channels. Building on that discovery, our recent research has included studies on the protective role of the brain water channel AQP4 in murine cerebral malaria, as well as defective urinary-concentrating ability as a result of a complete deficiency in aquaporin-1. We also collaborate on scientific training and research efforts with 20 Baltimore-area labs and in field studies in Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    Research Areas: infectious disease, anemia, malaria

    Principal Investigator

    Peter Agre, M.D.

    Department

    Biological Chemistry

  • Peter van Zijl Laboratory

    The Peter van Zijl Laboratory focuses on developing new methodologies for using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to study brain function and physiology. In addition, we are working to understand the basic mechanisms of the MRI signal changes measured during functional MRI (fMRI) tests of the brain. We are also mapping the wiring of the brain (axonal connections between the brains functional regions) and designing new technologies for MRI to follow where cells are migrating and when genes are expressed. A more recent interest is the development of bioorganic biodegradable MRI contrast agents. Our ultimate goal is to transform these technologies into fast methods that are compatible with the time available for multi-modal clinical diagnosis using MRI.

    Research Areas: brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRI

  • Psychiatric Neuroimaging

    Psychiatric Neuroimaging (PNI) is active in neuropsychiatric research using imaging methods such as MRI, fMRI, PET and DTI to understand the mechanisms and brain networks underlying human cognition. PNI faculty have published hundreds of papers on a variety of brain disorders which include but are not limited to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, and eating disorders. Faculty in the division have been awarded numerous peer-reviewed grants by the National Institutes of Health, foundations and other funding organizations.

    Research Areas: brain disorders

  • Raul Chavez-Valdez Lab

    Dr. Raul Chavez-Valdez is an assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics with great interest in the mechanisms of delayed injury and repair/regeneration in the developing neonatal brain following injury, specifically following hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (birth asphyxia). He collaborates with Dr. Frances Northington (Pediatrics) and Dr. Lee Martin (Pathology/Neuroscience) in unveiling the importance of programmed necrosis in the setting of brain injury induced by birth asphyxia. He is especially interested in the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4 following birth asphyxia and the changes that may explain the suspected excitatory/ inhibitory (E/I) imbalance particularly in the hippocampus. His work is highly translational since delayed hippocampal injury due to E/I imbalance may explain memory deficits observed despite therapeutic hypothermia in neonates suffering birth asphyxia. All of these aspects of developmental neuroplasticity are the base of ...his Career Development Award (NIH/NINDS-K08 award) and applications to other agencies. Additionally, he is part of multiple clinical efforts as part of the Neuroscience Intensive Care Nursery (NICN). He has been a Sutland-Pakula Endowed Fellow of Neonatal Research since September 2013. view more

    Research Areas: critical care medicine, neonatal, neuroscience, pediatrics, intensive care, pediatric critical care medicine

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Raul Chavez Valdez, M.D.

    Department

    Pediatrics

  • Robert Stevens Lab

    The Robert Stevens Lab seeks to generate a comprehensive anatomical and functional map of neural injury and repair following incidents such as trauma, stroke, anoxia and sepsis. Several projects have evaluated the relationship between critical illness and central or peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Ongoing projects deploy quantitative brain mapping to probe recovery of consciousness and cognitive function in patients who have experienced acute neurologic insults from trauma, stroke, cardiac arrest and sepsis.

    Research Areas: anoxia, stroke, trauma, sepsis, neural injury

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Robert Stevens, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Ronald Schnaar Lab

    The Ronald Schnaar Lab is involved in the rapidly expanding field of glycobiology, which studies cell surface glycans, lectins, and their roles in cell physiology.

    Current projects in our lab study include (1) Glycans and glycan-binding proteins in inflammatory lung diseases, (2) Ganglioside function in the brain, and (3) HIV-Tat and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Research Areas: cell physiology, HIV, neurocognitive disorders, glycobiology

  • S.C.O.R.E. Lab

    The mission of the Stroke Cognitive Outcomes and Recovery (S.C.O.R.E.) Lab is to enhance knowledge of brain mechanisms that allow people recover language, empathy, and other cognitive and communicative functions after stroke, and to improve ways to facilitate recovery of these functions after stroke. We also seek to improve the understanding of neurobiology of primary progressive aphasia., and how to enhance communication in people with this group of clinical syndromes.

    Research Areas: cerebrovascular, cognitive neuroscience, dementia

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Argye Hillis, M.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • Sesaki Lab

    The Sesaki Lab is interested in the molecular mechanisms and physiological roles of mitochondrial fusion. Mitochondria are highly dynamic and control their morphology by a balance of fusion and fission. The regulation of membrane fusion and fission generates a striking diversity of mitochondrial shapes, ranging from numerous small spheres in hepatocytes to long branched tubules in myotubes. In addition to shape and number, mitochondrial fusion is critical for normal organelle function.

    Research Areas: brain, mitochondrial fusion, mitochondria, molecular biology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Hiromi Sesaki, Ph.D.

    Department

    Cell Biology

  • Seth Margolis Laboratory

    The Seth Margolis Laboratory studies the signaling pathways that regulate synapse formation during normal brain development to try to understand how, when these pathways go awry, human cognitive disorders develop.

    We use Ephexin5 to study the molecular pathways that regulate restriction of excitatory synapse formation and their relevance to the pathophysiology of Angelman syndrome.

    Research Areas: cognition, Angelman syndrome, human development, cellular signaling, synapse formation

    Principal Investigator

    Seth Margolis, Ph.D.

    Department

    Biological Chemistry

  • Solomon Snyder Laboratory

    Information processing in the brain reflects communication among neurons via neurotransmitters. The Solomon Snyder Laboratory studies diverse signaling systems including those of neurotransmitters and second messengers as well as the actions of drugs upon these processes. We are interested in atypical neurotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and the D-isomers of certain amino acids, specifically D-serine and D-aspartate. Our discoveries are leading to a better understanding of how certain drugs for Parkinson's disease and Hungtington's disease interact with cells and proteins. Understanding how other second messengers work is giving us insight into anti-cancer therapies.

    Research Areas: Huntington's disease, amino acids, neurotransmitters, brain, cancer, nitric oxide, drugs, carbon monoxide, Parkinson's disease, nervous system

  • Sujatha Kannan Lab

    The Sujatha Kannan Lab works to develop therapeutic strategies for preventing perinatal brain injuries from occurring during development. We use a unique combination of nanotechnology, animal model development and in vivo imaging to better understand the mechanism and progression of cellular and metabolic conditions that lead to perinatal brain injury, with a focus on autism and cerebral palsy.

    Research Areas: autism, imaging, nanotechnology, cerebral palsy, perinatal brain injuries

  • Supendymoma and Ependymoma Research Center

    The Johns Hopkins comprehensive Subependymoma and Ependymoma Research Center divideS its efforts into three areas: basic science, translational research and clinical practice. Each division works separately but shares findings and resources openly with each other and our collaborators. The goal of our united efforts is to optimize current treatments to affect the care received by patients with subependymomas and ependymomas. Also, our clinical, translational and basic science teams work to develop novel therapies to improve and extend the lives of those with these rare tumors.

    Research Areas: brain cancer

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Henry Brem, M.D.

    Department

    Neurosurgery

  • Systems Biology Laboratory

    The Systems Biology Lab applies methods of multiscale modeling to problems of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and examines the systems biology of angiogenesis, breast cancer and peripheral artery disease (PAD).

    Using coordinated computational and experimental approaches, the lab studies the mechanisms of breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis to find ways to inhibit those processes.

    We use bioinformatics to discover novel agents that affect angiogenesis and perform in vitro and in vivo experiments to test these predictions. In addition we study protein networks that determine processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and inflammation in PAD. The lab also investigates drug repurposing for potential applications as stimulators of therapeutic angiogenesis, examines signal transduction pathways and builds 3D models of angiogenesis.

    The lab has discovered over a hundred novel anti-angiogenic peptides, and has undertaken in vitro and in vivo studies testing their activity unde...r different conditions. We have investigated structure-activity relationship (SAR) doing point mutations and amino acid substitutions and constructed biomimetic peptides derived from their endogenous progenitors. They have demonstrated the efficacy of selected peptides in mouse models of breast, lung and brain cancers, and in age-related macular degeneration.

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    Research Areas: peripheral artery disease, breast cancer, systems biology, computational biology, cancer, cardiovascular, age-related macular degeneration, bioinformatics, angiogenesis, microcirculation

    Principal Investigator

    Aleksander Popel, Ph.D.

    Department

    Biomedical Engineering

  • Systems Neurobiology Laboratory

    The Systems neurobiology Laboratory is a group of laboratories that all study various aspects of neurobiology. These laboratories include: (1) computational neurobiology Laboratory: The goal of their research is to build bridges between brain levels from the biophysical properties of synapses to the function of neural systems. (2) computational Principles of Natural Sensory Processing: Research in this lab focuses on the computational principles of how the brain processes information. (3) Laboratory for Cognitive neuroscience: This laboratory studies the neural and genetic underpinnings of language and cognition. (4) Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical neurobiology: The goal of this laboratory is develop a theoretical infrastructure for modern experimental neurobiology. (5) Organization and development of visual cortex: This laboratory is studying the organization and function of neural circuits in the visual cortex to understand how specific neural components enable visual perception ...and to elucidate the basic neural mechanisms that underlie cortical function. (6) Neural mechanism of selective visual attention: This laboratory studies the neural mechanisms of selective visual attention at the level of the individual neuron and cortical circuit, and relates these findings to perception and conscious awareness. (7) Neural basis of vision: This laboratory studies how sensory signals in the brain become integrated to form neuronal representation of the objects that people see. view less

    Research Areas: cognition, systems biology, brain, vision, neuroscience, perception

  • The Bigos Lab

    The Bigos Lab focuses on a Precision Medicine approach to the treatment of psychiatric illness. In addition, this lab employs functional neuroimaging and genetics as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric drug development. A recent study used functional MRI to test the neural effects of a drug with the potential to treat cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Other studies aim to identify patient-specific variables including sex, race, and genetics that impact drug clearance and clinical response to better select and dose antipsychotics and antidepressants.

    Research Areas: cognition, brain disorders, schizophrenia, mental illness, fMRI, pharmacogenomics, neuroimaging

  • The Functional Neurosurgery Lab

    The studies of the Functional Neurosurgery Lab currently test whether neural activity related to the experimental vigilance and conditioned expectation toward pain can be described by interrelated networks in the brain. These two psychological dimensions play an important role in chronic pain syndromes, but their neuroscience is poorly understood. Our studies of spike trains and LFPs utilize an anatomically focused platform with high temporal resolution, which complements fMRI studies surveying the whole brain at lower resolution. This platform to analyze the oscillatory power of structures in the brain, and functional connections (interactions and synchrony and causal interactions) between these structures based upon signals recorded directly from the waking human brain during surgery for epilepsy and movement disorders, e.g. tremor. Our studies have demonstrated that behaviors related to vigilance and expectation are related to electrical signals from the cortex and subcortical struc...tures.

    These projects are based upon the combined expertise of Dr. Nathan Crone in recordings and clinical management of the patients studied; Dr. Anna Korzeniewska in the analyses of signals recorded from the brain; Drs. Claudia Campbell, Luana Colloca and Rick Gracely in the clinical psychology and cognitive neurology of the expectation of pain and chronic pain; Dr. Joel Greenspan in quantitative sensory testing; and Dr. Martin Lindquist in the statistical techniques. Dr. Lenz has conducted studies of this type for more than thirty years with continuous NIH funding.
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    Research Areas: neurosurgery, epilepsy, movement disorders, pain

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Fred Lenz, M.D.

    Department

    Neurosurgery

  • The Koliatsos Lab

    Founded in the late 1980s, our Lab has been exploring the fundamental mechanisms of neural responses to traumatic and degenerative signals as well as mechanisms of neural repair. Our current interests include: traumatic brain injury and models; mechanisms and treatments of traumatic axonopathies; molecular neuropathology of traumatic brain injury; induced pluripotent stem cells as models of disease.

    Research Areas: traumatic brain injuries, pluripotent stem cells, molecular neuropathology, traumatic axonopathies

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Vassilis Koliatsos, M.D.

    Department

    Pathology

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