Research Lab Results for brain
Laboratory of Auditory NeurophysiologyLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Xiaoqin Wang, Ph.D.
Research in the Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology aims to understand brain mechanism respo...nsible for auditory perception and vocal communication in a naturalistic environment. We are interested in revealing neural mechanisms operating in the cerebral cortex and how cortical representations of biologically important sounds emerge through development and learning.Research Areas: neurophysiology, neuroengineering, audiology, cochlear implant, learning, language
We use a combination of state-of-the-art neurophysiological techniques and sophisticated computational and engineering tools to tackle our research questions.
Current research in our laboratory includes the following areas (1) neural basis of auditory perception, (2) neural mechanisms for vocal communication and social interaction, and (3) cortical processing of cochlear implant stimulation. view more
Laboratory of Richard L. HuganirLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Richard Huganir, Ph.D.
The Laboratory of Richard L. Huganir is interested in the mechanisms that regulate synaptic tra...nsmission and synaptic plasticity. Our general approach is to study molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neurotransmitter receptors and synapse function. We are currently focusing our efforts on the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the glutamate receptors, the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. view moreResearch Areas: synapses, neurotransmitters, cell biology, brain, molecular biology
Lee Martin LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Lee Martin, Ph.D.
In the Lee Martin Laboratory, we are testing the hypothesis that selective vulnerability--the p...henomenon in which only certain groups of neurons degenerate in adult onset neurological disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease--is dictated by brain regional connectivity, mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We believe it is mediated by excitotoxic cell death resulting from abnormalities in excitatory glutamatergic signal transduction pathways, including glutamate transporters and glutamate receptors as well as their downstream intracellular signaling molecules.Research Areas: ALS, neurodegeneration, selective vulnerability, cell death, Alzheimer's disease
We are also investigating the contribution of neuronal/glial apoptosis and necrosis as cell death pathways in animal (including transgenic mice) models of acute and progressive neurodegeneration. We use a variety of anatomical and molecular neurobiological approaches, including neuronal tract-tracing techniques, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, antipeptide antibody production, transmission electron microscopy and DNA analysis to determine the precise regional and cellular vulnerabilities and the synaptic and molecular mechanisms that result in selective neuronal degeneration.
Loyal Goff LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Loyal Goff, Ph.D.
The Loyal Goff Laboratory seeks to answer a fundamental biological question: How is the genome... properly interpreted to coordinate the diversity of cell types observed during neuronal development? We are focused on the acquisition of specific cellular identities in neuronal development and identifying the molecular determinants responsible for proper brain development. Using novel experimental approaches for the enrichment and purification of specific neuronal cell types and recent technological advances in single-cell RNA sequencing, we can discover and explore the cellular factors that contribute to neuronal cell fate decisions during mammalian brain development. view moreResearch Areas: brain, neuronal development, genomics, RNA
Machine Biointerface LabLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Gene Fridman, Ph.D., M.S.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Dr. Fridman's research group invents and develops bioelectronics for Neuroengineering and Medic...al Instrumentation applications. We develop innovative medical technology and we also conduct the necessary biological studies to understand how the technology could be effective and safe for people.Research Areas: medical instruments, bioelectricities, neuroengineering, nerve stimulation
Our lab is currently focused on developing the "Safe Direct Current Stimulation" technology, or SDCS. Unlike the currently available commercial neural prosthetic devices, such as cochlear implants, pacemakers, or Parkinson's deep brain stimulators that can only excite neurons, SDCS can excite, inhibit, and even sensitize them to input. This new technology opens a door to a wide range of applications that we are currently exploring along with device development: e.g. peripheral nerve stimulation for suppressing neuropathic pain, vestibular nerve stimulation to correct balance disorders, vagal nerve stimulation to suppress an asthma attack, and a host of other neuroprosthetic applications.
Medical Instrumentation MouthLab is a "tricorder" device that we invented here in the Machine Biointerface Lab. The device currently obtains all vital signs within 60s: Pulse rate, breathing rate, temperature, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, and FEV1 (lung function) measurement. Because the device is in the mouth, it has access to saliva and to breath and we are focused now on expanding its capability to obtaining measures of dehydration and biomarkers that could be indicative of a wide range of internal disorders ranging from stress to kidney failure and even lung cancer.
Marshall Shuler LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Marshall Shuler, Ph.D.
The Marshall Shuler Laboratory aims to understand the means by which brain reward systems conve...y reward value, expectancy, quality, probability and utility, and the rules by which such activity is used to affect synaptic weight within brain networks to encode stimulus-action associations. We use an interdisciplinary approach combining multisite recordings of neural activity, targeted pharmacological manipulation, viral-mediated gene transfer and behavior to study the neural mechanisms of reward-based interval learning in the primary visual cortex. view moreResearch Areas: neural circuits, reward-based systems, brain, vision, pharmacology
Marvel Cognitive Neuropsychiatric Research LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Cherie Marvel, Ph.D.
The Cognitive Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory (CNRLab) is part of the Division of Cognitiv...e Neuroscience within the Department of Neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Its current projects include investigating the motor system's contribution to cognitive function; HIV-related neuroplasticity and attention-to-reward as predictors of real world function; and brain function and cognition in Lyme disease. view moreResearch Areas: HIV, neuroplasticity, movement disorders, cognitive function
Mollie Meffert LabLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Mollie Meffert, M.D., Ph.D., M.S.
The Mollie Meffert Lab studies mechanisms underlying enduring changes in brain function. We are... interested in understanding how programs of gene expression are coordinated and maintained to produce changes in synaptic, neuronal and cognitive function. Rather than concentrating on single genes, our research is particularly focused on understanding the upstream processes that allow neuronal stimuli to synchronously orchestrate both up and down-regulation of the many genes required to mediate changes in growth and excitation. This process of gene target specificity is implicit to the appropriate production of gene expression programs that control lasting alterations in brain function. view moreResearch Areas: cognition, neuronal function, synaptic function, brain, genomics
Motion Analysis LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Amy Bastian, Ph.D.
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Our team is focused on understanding how complex movements are normally learned and controlled,... and how damage to specific brain areas impairs these processes. We employ several techniques to quantify movement including: 3-dimensional tracking and reconstruction of movement, recordings of muscle activity, force plate recordings, and calculation of joint forces and torques. These techniques allow for very precise measurements of many different types of movements including: walking, reaching, leg movements, hand movements and standing balance. All studies are designed to test specific hypotheses about the function of different brain areas, the cause of specific impairments and/or the effects of different interventions. view moreResearch Areas: cerebellar function, neurological diseases, motor learning
Neuroengineering and Biomedical Instrumentation LabLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Nitish Thakor, Ph.D.
The mission and interest of the neuroengineering and Biomedical Instrumentation Lab is to devel...op novel instrumentation and technologies to study the brain at several levels--from single cell to the whole brain--with the goal of translating the work into practical research and clinical applications.Research Areas: stem cells, imaging, brain, electrophysiology, neuroengineering, biomedical engineering, neuroscience
Our personnel include diverse, independent-minded and entrepreneurial students, post docs, and research faculty who base their research on modern microfabrication, stem cell biology, electrophysiology, signal processing, image processing, and integrated circuit design technologies. view more
Neuroimaging and Modulation Laboratory (NIMLAB)Lab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
John Desmond, Ph.D., M.S.
The neuroimaging and Modulation Laboratory (NIMLAB) investigates neural correlates of cognition... and behavior using neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We are looking in depth at the contributions of the cerebellum and cerebro-cerebellar circuits to cognition; the effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption on cognition and brain activation underlying cognitive function; how aging in humans affects neural systems that are important for associative learning and stimulus awareness; and the integration of transcranial magnetic stimulation with functional MRI. view moreResearch Areas: cognition, alcohol, functional magnetic resonance imaging, imaging, aging, neuroscience, neuroimaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation
Neuromodulation and Advanced Therapies CenterPrincipal Investigator:
Kelly Mills, M.D., M.H.S.
We investigate the brain networks and neurotransmitters involved in symptoms of movement disord...ers, such as Parkinson's disease, and the mechanisms by which modulating these networks through electrical stimulation affects these symptoms. We are particularly interested in the mechanisms through which neuromodulation therapies like deep brain stimulation affect non-motor brain functions, such as cognitive function and mood. We use imaging of specific neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, to understand the changes in brain chemistry associated with the clinical effects of deep brain stimulation and to predict which patients are likely to have changes in non-motor symptoms following DBS. Through collaborations with our neurosurgery colleagues, we explore brain function by making recordings during DBS surgery during motor and non-motor tasks. Dr. Mills collaborates with researchers in the Department of Neurosurgery, the Division of Geriatric and Neuropsychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and in the Division of Nuclear Medicine within the Department of Radiology to translate neuroimaging and neurophysiology findings into clinical applications. view moreResearch Areas:
Molecular imaging of effects of deep brain stimulation on cognitive function in Parkinson's dis...ease view more, Trajectories and types of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, Effects of neuromodulation on impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, Parkinson's disease,
Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on mood disorders and cognitive dysfunction ...in Parkinson's disease view more,
Relationship between patient-reported and objective cognitive impairments in Parkinson's diseas...e view more
Neuro-Oncology Surgical Outcomes LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Raj Mukherjee, M.D., M.P.H.
Directed by Debraj “Raj” Mukherjee, MD, MPH, the laboratory focuses on improving access to care..., reducing disparities, maximizing surgical outcomes, and optimizing quality of life for patients with brain and skull base tumors.Research Areas: medical education, surgical outcomes, neurosurgery, machine learning, access to care, surgical coaching, population health, quality of life, public health, artificial intelligence, oncology, disparities
The laboratory achieves these aims by creating and analyzing institutional and national databases, developing and validating novel patient-centered quality of life instruments, leveraging machine learning and artificial intelligence platforms to risk-stratify vulnerable patient populations, and designing novel surgical trials to push the boundaries of neurosurgical innovation.
Our research also investigates novel approaches to improve neurosurgical medical education including studying the utility of video-based surgical coaching and the design of new operative instrumentation. view more
Neuro-Vestibular and Ocular Motor LaboratoryPrincipal Investigator:
Amir Kheradmand, M.D.
In our laboratory we study the brain mechanisms of eye movements and spatial orientation.Research Areas: perception of spatial orientation, ocular motor physiology
-H...ow magnetic stimulation through transcranial devices affects cortical brain regions
-Neural mechanisms underlying balance, spatial orientation and eye movement
-Mathematical models that describe the function of ocular motor systems and perception of spatial orientation
-Short- and long-term adaptive processes underlying compensation for disease and functional recovery in patients with ocular motor, vestibular and perceptual dysfunction
Developing and testing novel diagnostic tools, treatments, and rehabilitative strategies for patients with ocular motor, vestibular and spatial dysfunction
O'Connor LabLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Daniel O'Connor, Ph.D., M.A.
How do brain dynamics give rise to our sensory experience of the world? The O'Connor lab works ...to answer this question by taking advantage of the fact that key architectural features of the mammalian brain are similar across species. This allows us to leverage the power of mouse genetics to monitor and manipulate genetically and functionally defined brain circuits during perception. We train mice to perform simple perceptual tasks. By using quantitative behavior, optogenetic and chemical-genetic gain- and loss-of-function perturbations, in vivo two-photon imaging, and electrophysiology, we assemble a description of the relationship between neural circuit function and perception. We work in the mouse tactile system to capitalize on an accessible mammalian circuit with a precise mapping between the sensory periphery and multiple brain areas. Our mission is to reveal the neural circuit foundations of sensory perception; to provide a framework to understand how circuit dysfunction causes mental and behavioral aspects of neuropsychiatric illness; and to help others fulfill creative potential and contribute to human knowledge. view moreResearch Areas: brain, mental illness, neuroscience, perception
Ocular Motor Physiology LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
David Zee, M.D.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Our research is directed toward how the brain controls the movements of the eyes (including eye... movements induced by head motion) using studies in normal human beings, patients and experimental animals. The focus is on mechanisms underlying adaptive ocular motor control. More specifically, what are mechanisms by which the brain learns to cope with the changes associated with normal development and aging as well as the damage associated with disease and trauma? How does the brain keep its eye movement reflexes properly calibrated? Our research strategy is to make accurate, quantitative measures of eye movements in response to precisely controlled stimuli and then use the analytical techniques of the control systems engineer to interpret the findings.Research Areas: diplopia, Labyrinth, eye movement, strabismus, vestibular
Research areas: 1) learning and compensation for vestibular disturbances that occur either within the labyrinth or more centrally within the brain, 2) the mechanisms by which the brain maintains correct alignment of the eyes to prevent diplopia and strabismus, and 3) the role of ocular proprioception in localizing objects in space for accurate eye-hand coordination.
Pediatric Cerebral Palsy and Epilepsy LabLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Dody Robinson, M.D.
The team headed by Shenandoah “Dody” Robinson, M.D., professor of neurosurgery, neurology and p...ediatrics, studies perinatal brain injury and repair. Employing developmentally age-appropriate models, the lab investigates neurological consequences of extremely preterm birth, including cerebral palsy, chronic pain, cognitive and behavioral impairment, epilepsy and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity. view moreResearch Areas: pediatric neurology, pediatric epilepsy, cerebral palsy
Peter Agre LabPrincipal Investigator:
Peter Agre, M.D.
Work in the Peter Agre Lab focuses on the molecular makeup of human diseases, particularly mala...ria, hemolytic anemias and blood group antigens. In 2003, Dr. Agre earned the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering aquaporin water channels. Building on that discovery, our recent research has included studies on the protective role of the brain water channel AQP4 in murine cerebral malaria, as well as defective urinary-concentrating ability as a result of a complete deficiency in aquaporin-1. We also collaborate on scientific training and research efforts with 20 Baltimore-area labs and in field studies in Zambia and Zimbabwe. view moreResearch Areas: infectious disease, anemia, malaria
Peter van Zijl LaboratoryLab WebsitePrincipal Investigator:
Peter Van Zijl, Ph.D.
Radiology and Radiological Science
The Peter van Zijl Laboratory focuses on developing new methodologies for using MRI and magneti...c resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to study brain function and physiology. In addition, we are working to understand the basic mechanisms of the MRI signal changes measured during functional MRI (fMRI) tests of the brain. We are also mapping the wiring of the brain (axonal connections between the brains functional regions) and designing new technologies for MRI to follow where cells are migrating and when genes are expressed. A more recent interest is the development of bioorganic biodegradable MRI contrast agents. Our ultimate goal is to transform these technologies into fast methods that are compatible with the time available for multi-modal clinical diagnosis using MRI. view moreResearch Areas: brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRI