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Displaying 41 to 60 of 83 results for brain

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  • Kristina Nielsen Laboratory

    The Kristina Nielsen Laboratory investigates neural circuits in the visual cortex that are responsible for encoding objects to understand how the visual system performs object recognition. We aim to reveal the fine-scale organization of neural circuits, with an emphasis on higher-level visual areas. We use two-photon microscopy to perform high-resolution functional imaging of visual areas in the non-human primate. We also investigate how the function of higher visual areas changes over the course of brain development in ferrets, by measuring the activity of single neurons in these areas, as well as determining the animal's visual capabilities at various developmental stages. In both types of investigations, we also rely on detailed anatomical techniques to precisely observe how the function of neuronal circuits is related to their structure.

    Research Areas: neural circuits, neurons, imaging, vision, photon microscopy, object perception

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Kristina Nielsen, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Laboratory for Computational Motor Control

    The Laboratory for computational Motor Control studies movement control in humans, including healthy people and people with neurological diseases. We use robotics, brain stimulation and neuroimaging to study brain function. Our long-term goals are to use mathematics to understand: 1) the basic function of the motor structures of the brain including the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the motor cortex; and 2) the relationship between how our brain controls our movements and how it controls our decisions.

    Research Areas: robotics, brain, movement, mathematics, neuroscience, decision making

  • Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology

    Research in the Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology aims to understand brain mechanism responsible for auditory perception and vocal communication in a naturalistic environment. We are interested in revealing neural mechanisms operating in the cerebral cortex and how cortical representations of biologically important sounds emerge through development and learning.

    We use a combination of state-of-the-art neurophysiological techniques and sophisticated computational and engineering tools to tackle our research questions.

    Current research in our laboratory includes the following areas (1) neural basis of auditory perception, (2) neural mechanisms for vocal communication and social interaction, and (3) cortical processing of cochlear implant stimulation.

    Research Areas: neurophysiology, neuroengineering, audiology, cochlear implant, learning, language

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Xiaoqin Wang, Ph.D.

    Department

    Biomedical Engineering

  • Laboratory of Richard L. Huganir

    The Laboratory of Richard L. Huganir is interested in the mechanisms that regulate synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Our general approach is to study molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neurotransmitter receptors and synapse function. We are currently focusing our efforts on the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the glutamate receptors, the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain.

    Research Areas: synapses, neurotransmitters, cell biology, brain, molecular biology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Richard Huganir, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Lee Martin Laboratory

    In the Lee Martin Laboratory, we are testing the hypothesis that selective vulnerability--the phenomenon in which only certain groups of neurons degenerate in adult onset neurological disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease--is dictated by brain regional connectivity, mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We believe it is mediated by excitotoxic cell death resulting from abnormalities in excitatory glutamatergic signal transduction pathways, including glutamate transporters and glutamate receptors as well as their downstream intracellular signaling molecules.

    We are also investigating the contribution of neuronal/glial apoptosis and necrosis as cell death pathways in animal (including transgenic mice) models of acute and progressive neurodegeneration. We use a variety of anatomical and molecular neurobiological approaches, including neuronal tract-tracing techniques, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, antipeptide antibody production, transmissi...on electron microscopy and DNA analysis to determine the precise regional and cellular vulnerabilities and the synaptic and molecular mechanisms that result in selective neuronal degeneration.
    view more

    Research Areas: ALS, neurodegeneration, selective vulnerability, cell death, Alzheimer's disease

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Lee Martin, Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • Loyal Goff Laboratory

    The Loyal Goff Laboratory seeks to answer a fundamental biological question: How is the genome properly interpreted to coordinate the diversity of cell types observed during neuronal development? We are focused on the acquisition of specific cellular identities in neuronal development and identifying the molecular determinants responsible for proper brain development. Using novel experimental approaches for the enrichment and purification of specific neuronal cell types and recent technological advances in single-cell RNA sequencing, we can discover and explore the cellular factors that contribute to neuronal cell fate decisions during mammalian brain development.

    Research Areas: brain, neuronal development, genomics, RNA

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Loyal Goff, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Machine Biointerface Lab

    Dr. Fridman's research group invents and develops bioelectronics for Neuroengineering and Medical Instrumentation applications. We develop innovative medical technology and we also conduct the necessary biological studies to understand how the technology could be effective and safe for people.

    Our lab is currently focused on developing the "Safe Direct Current Stimulation" technology, or SDCS. Unlike the currently available commercial neural prosthetic devices, such as cochlear implants, pacemakers, or Parkinson's deep brain stimulators that can only excite neurons, SDCS can excite, inhibit, and even sensitize them to input. This new technology opens a door to a wide range of applications that we are currently exploring along with device development: e.g. peripheral nerve stimulation for suppressing neuropathic pain, vestibular nerve stimulation to correct balance disorders, vagal nerve stimulation to suppress an asthma attack, and a host of other neuroprosthetic applications.

    M...edical Instrumentation MouthLab is a "tricorder" device that we invented here in the Machine Biointerface Lab. The device currently obtains all vital signs within 60s: Pulse rate, breathing rate, temperature, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, and FEV1 (lung function) measurement. Because the device is in the mouth, it has access to saliva and to breath and we are focused now on expanding its capability to obtaining measures of dehydration and biomarkers that could be indicative of a wide range of internal disorders ranging from stress to kidney failure and even lung cancer.
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    Research Areas: medical instruments, bioelectricities, neuroengineering, nerve stimulation

  • Marshall Shuler Laboratory

    The Marshall Shuler Laboratory aims to understand the means by which brain reward systems convey reward value, expectancy, quality, probability and utility, and the rules by which such activity is used to affect synaptic weight within brain networks to encode stimulus-action associations. We use an interdisciplinary approach combining multisite recordings of neural activity, targeted pharmacological manipulation, viral-mediated gene transfer and behavior to study the neural mechanisms of reward-based interval learning in the primary visual cortex.

    Research Areas: neural circuits, reward-based systems, brain, vision, pharmacology

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Marshall Shuler, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Marvel Cognitive Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory

    The Cognitive Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory (CNRLab) is part of the Division of Cognitive Neuroscience within the Department of Neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Its current projects include investigating the motor system's contribution to cognitive function; HIV-related neuroplasticity and attention-to-reward as predictors of real world function; and brain function and cognition in Lyme disease.

    Research Areas: HIV, neuroplasticity, movement disorders, cognitive function

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Cherie Marvel, Ph.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • Mikhail Pletnikov Laboratory

    The Mikhail Pletnikov Laboratory is interested in the neurobiology of neurodevelopmental diseases such as schizophrenia and autism. The major focus of our laboratory is to evaluate how adverse environmental factors and vulnerable genes interact to affect brain and behavior development. We address these experimental questions by using methods of cell and molecular biology, neuroimmunology, neurochemistry, psychopharmacology and developmental psychobiology. The current projects in our laboratory are: (1) Genetic risk factors in neuron-astrocyte interaction during neurodevelopment, (2) Gene-environment interplay in the pathogenesis of psychiatric conditions, and (3) The neuroimmune interactions in abnormal neurodevelopment

    Research Areas: autism, immunology, neurobiology, cell biology, neurodevelopment, developmental psychobiology, schizophrenia, pharmacology, chemistry, molecular biology

  • Mollie Meffert Lab

    The Mollie Meffert Lab studies mechanisms underlying enduring changes in brain function. We are interested in understanding how programs of gene expression are coordinated and maintained to produce changes in synaptic, neuronal and cognitive function. Rather than concentrating on single genes, our research is particularly focused on understanding the upstream processes that allow neuronal stimuli to synchronously orchestrate both up and down-regulation of the many genes required to mediate changes in growth and excitation. This process of gene target specificity is implicit to the appropriate production of gene expression programs that control lasting alterations in brain function.

    Research Areas: cognition, neuronal function, synaptic function, brain, genomics

  • Neuroengineering and Biomedical Instrumentation Lab

    The mission and interest of the neuroengineering and Biomedical Instrumentation Lab is to develop novel instrumentation and technologies to study the brain at several levels--from single cell to the whole brain--with the goal of translating the work into practical research and clinical applications.

    Our personnel include diverse, independent-minded and entrepreneurial students, post docs, and research faculty who base their research on modern microfabrication, stem cell biology, electrophysiology, signal processing, image processing, and integrated circuit design technologies.

    Research Areas: stem cells, imaging, brain, electrophysiology, neuroengineering, biomedical engineering, neuroscience

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Nitish Thakor, Ph.D.

    Department

    Biomedical Engineering

  • Neuroimaging and Modulation Laboratory (NIMLAB)

    The neuroimaging and Modulation Laboratory (NIMLAB) investigates neural correlates of cognition and behavior using neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We are looking in depth at the contributions of the cerebellum and cerebro-cerebellar circuits to cognition; the effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption on cognition and brain activation underlying cognitive function; how aging in humans affects neural systems that are important for associative learning and stimulus awareness; and the integration of transcranial magnetic stimulation with functional MRI.

    Research Areas: cognition, alcohol, functional magnetic resonance imaging, imaging, aging, neuroscience, neuroimaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    John Desmond, M.S., Ph.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • Neuromodulation and Advanced Therapies Center

    We investigate the brain networks and neurotransmitters involved in symptoms of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and the mechanisms by which modulating these networks through electrical stimulation affects these symptoms. We are particularly interested in the mechanisms through which neuromodulation therapies like deep brain stimulation affect non-motor brain functions, such as cognitive function and mood. We use imaging of specific neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, to understand the changes in brain chemistry associated with the clinical effects of deep brain stimulation and to predict which patients are likely to have changes in non-motor symptoms following DBS. Through collaborations with our neurosurgery colleagues, we explore brain function by making recordings during DBS surgery during motor and non-motor tasks. Dr. Mills collaborates with researchers in the Department of Neurosurgery, the Division of Geriatric and Neuropsychiatry in the Depar...tment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and in the Division of Nuclear Medicine within the Department of Radiology to translate neuroimaging and neurophysiology findings into clinical applications. view more

    Research Areas: Molecular imaging of effects of deep brain stimulation on cognitive function in Parkinson's disease, Trajectories and types of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, Effects of neuromodulation on impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, Parkinson's disease, Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on mood disorders and cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, Relationship between patient-reported and objective cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease

    Principal Investigator

    Kelly Mills, M.D., M.H.S.

    Department

    Neurology
    Neurosurgery

  • Neuro-Vestibular and Ocular Motor Laboratory

    In our laboratory we study the brain mechanisms of eye movements and spatial orientation.

    -How magnetic stimulation through transcranial devices affects cortical brain regions
    -Neural mechanisms underlying balance, spatial orientation and eye movement
    -Mathematical models that describe the function of ocular motor systems and perception of spatial orientation
    -Short- and long-term adaptive processes underlying compensation for disease and functional recovery in patients with ocular motor, vestibular and perceptual dysfunction
    Developing and testing novel diagnostic tools, treatments, and rehabilitative strategies for patients with ocular motor, vestibular and spatial dysfunction

    Research Areas: perception of spatial orientation, ocular motor physiology

    Principal Investigator

    Amir Kheradmand, M.D.

    Department

    Neurology

  • O'Connor Lab

    How do brain dynamics give rise to our sensory experience of the world? The O'Connor lab works to answer this question by taking advantage of the fact that key architectural features of the mammalian brain are similar across species. This allows us to leverage the power of mouse genetics to monitor and manipulate genetically and functionally defined brain circuits during perception. We train mice to perform simple perceptual tasks. By using quantitative behavior, optogenetic and chemical-genetic gain- and loss-of-function perturbations, in vivo two-photon imaging, and electrophysiology, we assemble a description of the relationship between neural circuit function and perception. We work in the mouse tactile system to capitalize on an accessible mammalian circuit with a precise mapping between the sensory periphery and multiple brain areas. Our mission is to reveal the neural circuit foundations of sensory perception; to provide a framework to understand how circuit dysfunction causes ...mental and behavioral aspects of neuropsychiatric illness; and to help others fulfill creative potential and contribute to human knowledge. view more

    Research Areas: brain, mental illness, neuroscience, perception

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Daniel O'Connor, M.A., Ph.D.

    Department

    Neuroscience

  • Ocular Motor Physiology Laboratory

    Our research is directed toward how the brain controls the movements of the eyes (including eye movements induced by head motion) using studies in normal human beings, patients and experimental animals. The focus is on mechanisms underlying adaptive ocular motor control. More specifically, what are mechanisms by which the brain learns to cope with the changes associated with normal development and aging as well as the damage associated with disease and trauma? How does the brain keep its eye movement reflexes properly calibrated? Our research strategy is to make accurate, quantitative measures of eye movements in response to precisely controlled stimuli and then use the analytical techniques of the control systems engineer to interpret the findings.

    Research areas: 1) learning and compensation for vestibular disturbances that occur either within the labyrinth or more centrally within the brain, 2) the mechanisms by which the brain maintains correct alignment of the eyes to prevent d...iplopia and strabismus, and 3) the role of ocular proprioception in localizing objects in space for accurate eye-hand coordination.
    view more

    Research Areas: diplopia, Labyrinth, eye movement, strabismus, vestibular

  • Pankaj Jay Pasricha Lab

    Researchers in the Pankaj Jay Pasricha Lab are interested in the molecular mechanisms of visceral pain and restoration of enteric neural function with novel strategies, including neural stem cell transplants. Recent research has focused on the enteric nervous system and gut-brain axis, and the complexity of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Another recent study indicates that patients with underlying small intestinal bacterial overgrowth have significant delays in small bowel transit time as compared to those without, while another explored the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide cryotherapy for treatment of neoplastic Barrett's esophagus.

    Research Areas: gastroenterology, stem cells, neurogastroenterology, pancreatitis, pain, Barrett's esophagus, motility disorders

    Principal Investigator

    Jay Pasricha, M.B.B.S., M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Peter Agre Lab

    Work in the Peter Agre Lab focuses on the molecular makeup of human diseases, particularly malaria, hemolytic anemias and blood group antigens. In 2003, Dr. Agre earned the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering aquaporin water channels. Building on that discovery, our recent research has included studies on the protective role of the brain water channel AQP4 in murine cerebral malaria, as well as defective urinary-concentrating ability as a result of a complete deficiency in aquaporin-1. We also collaborate on scientific training and research efforts with 20 Baltimore-area labs and in field studies in Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    Research Areas: infectious disease, anemia, malaria

    Principal Investigator

    Peter Agre, M.D.

    Department

    Biological Chemistry

  • Peter van Zijl Laboratory

    The Peter van Zijl Laboratory focuses on developing new methodologies for using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to study brain function and physiology. In addition, we are working to understand the basic mechanisms of the MRI signal changes measured during functional MRI (fMRI) tests of the brain. We are also mapping the wiring of the brain (axonal connections between the brains functional regions) and designing new technologies for MRI to follow where cells are migrating and when genes are expressed. A more recent interest is the development of bioorganic biodegradable MRI contrast agents. Our ultimate goal is to transform these technologies into fast methods that are compatible with the time available for multi-modal clinical diagnosis using MRI.

    Research Areas: brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRI

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