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Amita Gupta Lab
The Amita Gupta Lab focuses on drug trials to prevent and treat HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and other co-morbidities in adults, including pregnant women and children who reside in low-income settings. We also conduct cohort studies assessing HIV, inflammation and nutrition in international settings; TB in pregnancy; and risk factors for TB in India (CTRIUMPH). We collaborate with several faculty in the Center for TB Research, Division of Infectious Diseases and the School of Public Health.
Andrea Cox Lab
Research in the Andrea Cox Lab explores the immune response in chronic viral infections, with a focus on HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In our studies, we examine the role of the immune response upon exposure to HCV by examining responses to HCV in a longitudinal, prospective group of high-risk individuals. This enables us to compare the innate, humoral and cellular immune responses to infection with clearance versus persistence. Through our findings, we seek to identify mechanisms of protective immunity against HCV infection and improve HCV vaccine design.
The Anna Durbin Lab evaluates experimental vaccines through human clinical trials. We have conducted both pediatric and adult clinical trials on vaccines for HIV, hepatitis C, HPV, influenza, malaria, dengue virus, rotavirus and other viruses. We also have a longstanding interest in better understanding the immunologic factors of dengue infection and disease. We’re working to identify the viral, host and immunologic factors that cause severe dengue illness.
Anne Rompalo Lab
Research in the Anne Rompalo Lab focuses on STD research and application. We recently examined the relationship between violence against women and HIV-related risk factors in women living in the United States. Past projects include a nine-year longitudinal observation study of HIV-infected women in Baltimore.
Balagopal Lab - Viral Hepatitis and Translational Virology
The Balagopal Lab has adapted high-resolution tools to study viruses in situ. Specifically, we were the first to quantify hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in single hepatocytes by developing single-cell laser capture microdissection (scLCM) and integrating this tool with highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR. We reported that HCV infects a minority of hepatocytes that are found in geospatial clusters. More recently, we (PIs Balagopal and Thio) integrated scLCM with droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to reveal the first observations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection at single cell resolution in the liver. We found that HBV infects nearly all hepatocytes prior to antiviral therapy. However, during antiviral therapy, HBV infection is diminished while viral transcription is markedly attenuated.
Our lab has also focused on HIV-1 infection and immune activation for over a decade. Most recently, we have studied type 1 interferon responses to HIV-1 using RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Using th...is technology, we identified novel interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that are associated with HIV-1 restriction in vivo. view less
The Bryan Lau Lab is interested in epidemiological and statistical methods for cohort studies and the application of these methods primarily to HIV cohort studies. We’re particularly interested in developing new methods and using approaches from other disciplines as novel solutions to specific epidemiologic issues.
Charles W. Flexner Laboratory
A. Laboratory activities include the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) techniques to measure intracellular drugs and drugs metabolites. AMS is a highly sensitive method for detecting tracer amounts of radio-labeled molecules in cells, tissues, and body fluids. We have been able to measure intracellular zidovudine triphosphate (the active anabolite of zidovudine) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers given small doses of 14C-zidovudine, and have directly compared the sensitivity of AMS to traditional LC/MS methods carried out in our laboratory.
B. Clinical research activities investigate the clinical pharmacology of new anti-HIV therapies and drug combinations. Specific drug classes studied include HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, entry inhibitors (selective CCR5 and CXCR4 antagonists), and integrase inhibitors. Scientific objectives of clinical studies include characterization of early drug activity, toxicity, and pharmacok...inetics. Additional objectives are characterization of pathways of drug metabolism, and identification of clinically significant harmful and beneficial drug interactions mediated by hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 isoforms. view more
Chloe Thio Lab
Research in the Chloe Thio lab focuses on several areas. First, HBV virology and immunology in HBV monoinfected and HIV-HBV co-infected individuals that will ultimately help develop a cure for HBV. Second, HCV infection in men who have sex with men. Third, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with a focus on HIV-infected individuals. Fourth, host genetic determinants of spontaneous HBV recovery and HCV clearance.
Christian Merlo Lab
Work in the Christian Merlo Lab includes studies on pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, outcomes in lung transplantation and treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), and HIV-related pulmonary disease. We have studied methods of diagnosing and managing pulmonary arteriovenous malformations as well as the outcomes of adult CF patients who are infected with multiple antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our recent research has also explored recipient and donor variables in the success or failure of lung transplants, and ways in which national healthcare delivery systems impact lung transplant outcomes for CF patients.
Christine Durand Lab
Dr. Christine Durand, assistant professor of medicine and oncology and member of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, is involved in clinical and translational research focused on individuals infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus who require cancer and transplant therapies. Her current research efforts include looking at outcomes of hepatitis C treatment after solid organ transplant, the potential use of organs from HIV-infected donors for HIV-infected solid organ transplant candidates, and HIV cure strategies including bone marrow transplantation.
Dr. Durand is supported by multiple grants:
• R01 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to study HIV-to-HIV organ transplantation in the US.
• K23 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to study antiretroviral therapy during bone marrow transplant in HIV-1 infection.
• U01 from the NIAID to study HIV-to-HIV deceased donor kidney transplantation.
U01 from the NIAID to study HIV-to-HIV deceased ...donor liver transplantation. view more
The Clinical Laboratory and Biomarkers Cores will coordinate access to laboratory expertise, testing, training, specimen repositories and Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). The goals of this core are to assure that all JHU HIV investigators have access to and utilize appropriate, validated and, where applicable, certified laboratory assays. The core will also maintain a biomarker specimen repository for storage cataloguing and utilization of biological specimens.
Craig W. Hendrix Lab
Research in the Craig W. Hendrix Lab concentrates on the chemoprevention of HIV infection, clinical pharmacology of antiviral drugs, drug interactions, and oral, topical and injectable HIV microbicide development. Our lab conducts small, intensive sampling studies of PK and PD of drugs for HIV prevention with a focus on developing methods to better understand HIV and drug distribution in the male genital tract, female genital tract and lower gastrointestinal tract. We also support numerous HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis development studies from phase I to phase III, largely as leader of the Pharmacology Core Laboratory of both the Microbicide Trial Network and HIV Prevention Trials Network.
David Celentano Lab
The David Celentano Lab studies behavioral and social epidemiology by integrating behavioral science theory and research with epidemiology methods. Our team directs epidemiological investigations and stages preventive interventions targeting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.
David Graham Lab
The David Graham Lab studies the consequences of HIV interactions with the immune system, the resulting pathogenesis and how to sabotage these interactions. We apply advanced technologies like mass spectrometry to dissect processes at the molecular level. We are also actively involved in cardiovascular research and studies the ways proteins are organized into functional units in different cell types of the heart.
Major projects in our lab are organized into three major areas: (1) H/SIV pathogenesis and neuropathogenesis, (2) Cardiovascular disease, and (3) High technology development
Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology
David Thomas Lab
The David Thomas Lab oversees clinical research projects that aim to understand the natural history and pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection. A special area of clinical and research focus is liver disease in HIV-infected people.
Research in the Erica Johnson Lab investigates infection control in military deployment environments as well as infections that are associated with combat trauma. We explore topics such as HIV outcomes, gender-based health issues and disparities in care.
Ernesto Freire Laboratory
The Ernesto Freire Lab studies the use of novel drugs to treat disease. Our research has resulted in the development of a thermodynamic platform for drug discovery and optimization. Our aim is to achieve high binding affinity and selectivity as well as appropriate pharmacokinetics with the platform. We are currently focusing on drug targets such as HIV/-1 protease inhibitors (HIV/AIDS), plasmepsin inhibitors (malaria), HCV protease inhibitors (hepatitis C), coronavirus 3CL-pro protease inhibitors (SARS and other viral infections), HIV-1 gp120 inhibitors (HIV/AIDS), chymase inhibitors (cardiovascular disease) and beta lactamase inhibitors (antibiotic resistance).
Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry
Geetanjali Chander Lab
Our research focuses at the nexus of HIV and alcohol and other substance use. We examine epidemiological aspects of HIV and alcohol use/other drug use among persons with HIV (PWH), and work on the adaptation and testing of person and computer-delivered interventions for unhealthy alcohol use, particularly among women.
Gregory Kirk Lab
Research in the Gregory Kirk Lab examines the natural history of viral infections — particularly HIV and hepatitis viruses — in the U.S. and globally. As part of the ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) study, our research looks at a range of pathogenetic, clinical behavioral issues, with a special focus on non-AIDS-related outcomes of HIV, including cancer and liver and lung diseases. We use imaging and clinical, genetic, epigenetic and proteomic methods to identify and learn more about people at greatest risk for clinically relevant outcomes from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections. Our long-term goal is to translate our findings into targeted interventions that help reduce the disease burden of these infections.
Dr. Haughey directs a disease-oriented research program that address questions in basic neurobiology, and clinical neurology. The primary research interests of the laboratory are:
1. To identify biomarkers markers for neurodegenerative diseases including HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, Multiple Sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. In these studies, blood and cerebral spinal fluid samples obtained from ongoing clinical studies are analyzed for metabolic profiles through a variety of biochemical, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic techniques. These biomarkers can then be used in the diagnosis of disease, as prognostic indicators to predict disease trajectory, or as surrogate markers to track the effectiveness of disease modifying interventions.
2. To better understand how the lipid components of neuronal, and glial membranes interact with proteins to regulate signal transduction associated with differentiation, motility, inflammatory signaling, survival, and neuronal excitab...ility.
3. To understand how extracellular vesicles (exosomes) released from brain resident cells regulate neuronal excitability, neural network activity, and peripheral immune responses to central nervous system damage and infections.
4. To develop small molecule therapeutics that regulate lipid metabolism as a neuroprotective and restorative strategy for neurodegenerative conditions. view more
Healthy Brain Program
The Brain Health Program is a multidisciplinary team of faculty from the departments of neurology, psychiatry, epidemiology, and radiology lead by Leah Rubin and Jennifer Coughlin. In the hope of revealing new directions for therapies, the group studies molecular biomarkers identified from tissue and brain imaging that are associated with memory problems related to HIV infection, aging, dementia, mental illness and traumatic brain injury. The team seeks to advance policies and practices to optimize brain health in vulnerable populations while destigmatizing these brain disorders.
Current and future projects include research on: the roles of the stress response, glucocorticoids, and inflammation in conditions that affect memory and the related factors that make people protected or or vulnerable to memory decline; new mobile apps that use iPads to improve our detection of memory deficits; clinical trials looking at short-term effects of low dose hydrocortisone and randomized to 28 day...s of treatment; imaging brain injury and repair in NFL players to guide players and the game; and the role of inflammation in memory deterioration in healthy aging, patients with HIV, and other neurodegenerative conditions. view less