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Displaying 11 to 20 of 28 results for DNA

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  • GI Early Detection Biomarkers Lab

    Dr. Meltzer is an internationally renowned leader in the molecular pathobiology of gastrointestinal malignancy and premalignancy. He invented molecular methods to detect loss of heterozygosity in tiny biopsies, triggering an avalanche of research on precancerous lesions. He was the first to comprehensively study coding region microsatellite instability, leading to the identification of several important tumor suppressor genes. He performed several groundbreaking genomic, epigenomic and bioinformatic studies of esophageal and colonic neoplasms, shifting the GI research paradigm toward genome-wide approaches. He directed an ambitious nationwide validation study of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for the prediction of neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus.

    Dr. Meltzer founded and led the Aerodigestive Cancer and Biomarker Interdisciplinary Programs at the University of Maryland, also becoming associate director for core sciences at that school’s Cancer Center. He currently hol...ds an endowed professorship and is the director of GI biomarker research at Johns Hopkins.

    The laboratory group focuses its efforts on the molecular genetics of gastrointestinal cancers and premalignant lesions, as well as on translational research to improve early detection, prognostic evaluation, and treatment of these conditions. Below, some examples of this work are described.
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    Research Areas: gastrointestinal cancer, gastrointestinal

    Principal Investigator

    Stephen Meltzer, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Greider Lab

    The Greider lab uses biochemistry to study telomerase and cellular and organismal consequences of telomere dysfunction. Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage and chromosomal rearrangements. Conventional replication leads to telomere shortening, but telomere length is maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Telomerase is required for cells that undergo many rounds of divisions, especially tumor cells and some stem cells. The lab has generated telomerase null mice that are viable and show progressive telomere shortening for up to six generations. In the later generations, when telomeres are short, cells die via apoptosis or senescence. Crosses of these telomerase null mice to other tumor prone mice show that tumor formation can be greatly reduced by short telomeres. The lab also is using the telomerase null mice to explore the essential role of telomerase stem cell viability. Telomerase mutations cause autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita. People with ...this disease die of bone marrow failure, likely due to stem cell loss. The lab has developed a mouse model to study this disease. Future work in the lab will focus on identifying genes that induce DNA damage in response to short telomeres, identifying how telomeres are processed and how telomere elongation is regulated. view less

    Research Areas: telomerase, biochemistry, stem cells, cell biology, DNA

  • Haig Kazazian Lab

    The Kazazian Lab focuses on the biology of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. Retrotransposons are pieces of genomic DNA that have the ability to duplicate themselves and insert into a new genomic location. Current studies use innovative DNA sequencing to locate all human-specific L1s in any genome. By understanding L1 biology, we hope to better understand the role of these genomes and their behavior in complex human disease, such as cancer and mental disorders. The lab is also examining how to carry out gene therapy of hemophilia A using AAV vectors.

    Research Areas: cell biology, cancer, retrotransposons, DNA, genomics, mental disorders

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Haig Kazazian, M.D.

    Department

    Pediatrics

  • James Hamilton Lab

    The main research interests of the James Hamilton Lab are the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma and the development of molecular markers to help diagnose and manage cancer of the liver. In addition, we are investigating biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and response to various treatment modalities. Results of this study will provide a molecular classification of HCC and allow us to identify targets for chemoprevention and treatment. Specifically, we extract genomic DNA and total RNA from liver tissues and use this genetic material for methylation-specific PCR (MSP), cDNA microarray, microRNA microarray and genomic DNA methylation array experiments.

    Research Areas: cancer, molecular genetics, genomics, pathogenesis, liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma

    Principal Investigator

    James Hamilton, M.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Lee Martin Laboratory

    In the Lee Martin Laboratory, we are testing the hypothesis that selective vulnerability--the phenomenon in which only certain groups of neurons degenerate in adult onset neurological disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease--is dictated by brain regional connectivity, mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. We believe it is mediated by excitotoxic cell death resulting from abnormalities in excitatory glutamatergic signal transduction pathways, including glutamate transporters and glutamate receptors as well as their downstream intracellular signaling molecules.

    We are also investigating the contribution of neuronal/glial apoptosis and necrosis as cell death pathways in animal (including transgenic mice) models of acute and progressive neurodegeneration. We use a variety of anatomical and molecular neurobiological approaches, including neuronal tract-tracing techniques, immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, antipeptide antibody production, transmissi...on electron microscopy and DNA analysis to determine the precise regional and cellular vulnerabilities and the synaptic and molecular mechanisms that result in selective neuronal degeneration.
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    Research Areas: ALS, neurodegeneration, selective vulnerability, cell death, Alzheimer's disease

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Lee Martin, Ph.D.

    Department

    Pathology

  • Mihaela Pertea Lab

    The Mihaela Pertea Lab develops computational tools for RNA sequence analysis, gene finding, splice-site prediction and sequence-motif finding. Previous research projects led to the development of open-source software systems related to finding genes.

    Research Areas: computational biology, DNA, genomics, RNA

    Lab Website

    Principal Investigator

    Mihaela Pertea, M.S., M.S.E., Ph.D.

    Department

    Medicine

  • Molecular Oncology Laboratory

    Our Molecular Oncology lab seeks to understand the genomic wiring of response and resistance to immunotherapy through integrative genomic, transcriptomic, single-cell and liquid biopsy analyses of tumor and immune evolution. Through comprehensive exome-wide sequence and genome-wide structural genomic analyses we have discovered that tumor cells evade immune surveillance by elimination of immunogenic mutations and associated neoantigens through chromosomal deletions. Additionally, we have developed non-invasive molecular platforms that incorporate ultra-sensitive measurements of circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) to assess clonal dynamics during immunotherapy. These approaches have revealed distinct dynamic ctDNA and T cell repertoire patterns of clinical response and resistance that are superior to radiographic response assessments. Our work has provided the foundation for a molecular response-adaptive clinical trial, where therapeutic decisions are made not based on imaging but b...ased on molecular responses derived from liquid biopsies. Overall, our group focuses on studying the temporal and spatial order of the metastatic and immune cascade under the selective pressure of immune checkpoint blockade with the ultimate goal to translate this knowledge into “next-generation” clinical trials and change the way oncologists select patients for immunotherapy. view more

    Research Areas: integrative mutli-omic analyses, Cancer genomics, liquid biopsies, tumor evolution, lung cancer, immunogenomic biomarkers

    Principal Investigator

    Valsamo Anagnostou, M.D., Ph.D.

    Department

    Oncology

  • Richard F. Ambinder Lab

    Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus are found in association with a variety of cancers. Our laboratory studies are aimed at better defining the role(s) of the virus in the pathogenesis of these diseases and the development of strategies to prevent, diagnose or treat them. We have become particularly interested in the unfolded protein response in activation of latent viral infection. Among the notions that we are exploring is the possibility that activation of virus-encoded enzymes will allow the targeted delivery of radation. In addition, we are investigating a variety of virus-related biomarkers including viral DNA, antibody responses, and cytokine measurements that may be clinically relevant.

    Research Areas: virology, antiviral therapy

  • Salzberg Lab

    Research in the Salzberg Lab focuses on the development of new computational methods for analysis of DNA from the latest sequencing technologies. Over the years, we have developed and applied software to many problems in gene finding, genome assembly, comparative genomics, evolutionary genomics and sequencing technology itself. Our current work emphasizes analysis of DNA and RNA sequenced with next-generation technology.

    Research Areas: computational biology, DNA, genomics, sequencing technology, biostatistics, RNA

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