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Instruments and Methods

Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit

The Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) is used to evaluate a patient’s physical functioning in an ICU setting. If you wish to access and use the FSS-ICU, please follow this link (to find FSS-ICU, search under the “Physical Outcomes – Tests” heading), and register at this website. Additional resources are available for the FSS-ICU including a pocket card, FAQ, pre-ICU baseline retrospective data collection version, and translated versions. To get updates on revisions to the FSS-ICU and its User Instructions, sign up for the “Newsletter” feature at this website.

Link to FSS-ICU (under “Physical Outcomes – Tests”)

Validation studies of the FSS-ICU

Original validation study: Huang M, et al.Functional Status Score for the ICU: An International Clinimetric Analysis of Validity, Responsiveness, and Minimal Important Difference. Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec;44(12)Link to Pubmed

For many more validation studies, please visit: 

Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility scale

The Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) scale is created to standardize the measurement and reporting of patient mobility in the hospital. The JH-HLM is currently being validated. Anyone wishing to use this scale should submit a user request form.

Link to JH-HLM Scale and F.A.Q,

Survey Of Barriers to Early Mobility

A novel survey instrument to identify important barriers to mobilizing medical inpatients. Results from this paper can assist with the implementation of quality improvement projects for increasing early hospital-based patient mobility.

Link to Pubmed / Survey Instrument (Part of the Complimentary Critical Care Rehabilitation Toolkit)

Parker AM, Akhlaghi N, Malik A, Friedman LA, Mantheiy E, Kelsey A, Glover M,          Dong S, Lavezza A, Seltzer J, Needham, DM. Perceived barriers to early goal-directed mobility in the intensive care unit: Results of a quality improvement evaluation Australian Critical Care. 2021. Link to Pubmed 

Manual Muscle Strength Testing

Resistance is applied manually to different muscle groups, and the reviewer grades the strength of the resistance using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale.

Please click on the picture below to view the Manual Muscle Testing Protocol, published in the Journal of Visualized Experiments.

For more information on surveys instruments and clinical testing methods, please visit:

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