My research focuses on understanding the natural history of viral infections, particularly HIV and the hepatitis viruses, in both domestic and international settings. The ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) study is a long-standing and productive cohort that characterizes the natural history of HIV infection among intravenous drug users in Baltimore, MD. Our research in ALIVE ranges from pathogenesis to clinical to behavioral. In particular, I focus on the non-AIDS outcomes of HIV including cancer, liver and lung diseases. I also work on related topics with international collaborators, primarily in Africa. The interaction of viral, environmental and genetic factors is an important determinant in progression of many viral diseases. My research employs genetic, proteomic, and other novel laboratory and imaging methods to help understand and identify individuals at greatest risk for clinically relevant outcomes from HIV, HBV and HCV infections. The long-term goal of this research is to translate these markers into targeted interventions to help reduce the burden from these infections.
Using Mobile Health to Respond Early to Acute Exacerbations of COPD in HIV (mReach)
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Linas BS, Genz A, Westergaard RP, Chang LW, Bollinger RC, Latkin C, Kirk GD. "Ecological momentary assessment of illicit drug use compared to biological and self-reported methods." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016 Mar 15;4(1):e27. doi: 10.2196/mhealth.4470.
An P, Penugonda S, Thorball CW, Bartha I, Goedert JJ, Donfield S, Buchbinder S, Binns-Roemer E, Kirk GD, Zhang W, Fellay J, Yu XF, Winkler CA. "Role of APOBEC3F gene variation in HIV-1 disease progression and pneumocystis pneumonia." PLoS Genet. 2016 Mar 4;12(3):e1005921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005921. eCollection 2016 Mar.
Patel EU, Cox AL, Mehta SH, Boon D, Mullis CE, Astemborski J, Osburn WO, Quinn J, Redd AD, Kirk GD, Thomas DL, Quinn TC, Laeyendecker O. "Use of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) immunoglobulin G antibody avidity as a biomarker to estimate the population-level incidence of HCV infection." J Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 14. pii: jiw005. [Epub ahead of print]
Robbins HA, Fennell CE, Gillison M, Xiao W, Guo Y, Wentz A, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, D'Souza G. "Prevalence of and risk factors for oral human papillomavirus infection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people who inject drugs." PLoS One. 2015 Nov 24;10(11):e0143698. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143698. eCollection 2015.
McLaren PJ, Coulonges C, Bartha I, Lenz TL, Deutsch AJ, Bashirova A, Buchbinder S, Carrington MN, Cossarizza A, Dalmau J, De Luca A, Goedert JJ, Gurdasani D, Haas DW, Herbeck JT, Johnson EO, Kirk GD, Lambotte O, Luo M, Mallal S, van Manen D, Martinez-Picado J, Meyer L, Miro JM, Mullins JI, Obel N, Poli G, Sandhu MS, Schuitemaker H, Shea PR, Theodorou I, Walker BD, Weintrob AC, Winkler CA, Wolinsky SM, Raychaudhuri S, Goldstein DB, Telenti A, de Bakker PI, Zagury JF, Fellay J. "Polymorphisms of large effect explain the majority of the host genetic contribution to variation of HIV-1 virus load." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 24;112(47):14658-63. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1514867112. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
Drummond MB, Kirk GD. HIV-associated lung disease: Recent insights and implications for the clinician. Lancet Respir Med, 2014; 2(7): 583-92. PMCID: PMC4111094
Linas BS, Latkin C, Westergaard RP, Chang LW, Bollinger RC, Genz A, Kirk GD. Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecologic momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs. Addiction, 2014. (In Press)
Greene M, Covinsky K, Astemborski J, Piggott DA, Brown T, Leng S, Galai N, Mehta SH, Guralnik J, Patel KV, Kirk GD. The relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality: A cohort study. AIDS; 2014. (In Press)
Linton SL, Jennings JJ, Latkin C, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. The association between neighborhood residential rehabilitation and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland, 2000-2011. Health & Place, 2014; 28C:142-149. PMID: 24840154
Kirk GD, Linas BS, Westergaard RP, Piggott D, Bollinger RC, Chang L, Genz A. The EXposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) Study: Implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users, AIDS Res Treat, 2013: 594671. PMCID: PMC3836292
Salter ML, Lau B, Mehta SH, Go VF, Leng S, Kirk GD. Correlates of elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in persons with or at high-risk for HCV and HIV infections. JAIDS, 2013; 64(5):488-95. PMCID: PMC3848037
Westergaard RP, Hess T, Astemborski J, Mehta SH, Kirk GD. Longitudinal changes in engagement in care and viral suppression for HIV-infected injection drug users. AIDS, 2013; 27(16): 2559-66. PMCID: PMC3795966
Popescu I, Drummond MB, Gama L, Merlo CA, Astemborski J, Brown RH, Wise RA, Clements JE, Kirk GD, McDyer JF. Activation-induced cell death drives profound lung CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2014. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25137293.
Drummond MB, Astemborski J, Lambert AA, Goldberg S, Stitzer ML, Merlo CA, Rand CS, Wise RA, Kirk GD. A randomized pilot study of contingency management and spirometric lung age for motivating smoking cessation among injection drug users. BMC Public Health, 2014; 28(14):761
Viswanathan S, Detels R, Mehta SH, Macatangay BJC, Kirk GD, Jacobson LP. Level of adherence and HIV RNA suppression in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Behavior; 2014. (In Press)
Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Astemborski J, Galai N, Washington J, Higgins Y, Balagopal A, Thomas DL. HIV, age, and the severity of hepatitis C virus-related liver disease. Ann Intern Med, 2013; 158(9): 658-666. PMCID: PMC3708651
Lambert A, Merlo CA, Kirk GD. HIV-associated lung malignancies. Clin Chest Med, 2013; 34(2): 255-272. PMCID: PMC3670780
Drummond MB, Astemborksi J, Marshall MM, Mehta SH, McDyer JF, Brown RH, Wise RA Merlo CA, Kirk GD. The effect of HIV infection on longitudinal lung function decline: A prospective cohort. AIDS, 2013; 27(8): 1303-1311. PMCID: PMC3953568
Piggott DA, Muzaale AD, Mehta SH, Brown TT, Leng SX, Kirk GD. Frailty, HIV infection, and mortality in an aging cohort of injection drug users. PLoS One, 2013; 8(1): e54910. PMCID: PMC3561408
Fischer WA, Drummond MB, Merlo CA, Thomas DL, Brown R, Mehta SH, Wise RA, Kirk GD. Hepatitis C virus infection is not an independent risk factor for obstructive lung disease. COPD, 2014; 11(1): 10-6. PMID: 23862666