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Patrick Andrew Brown, M.D.

Photo of Dr. Patrick Andrew Brown, M.D.

Director, Pediatric Leukemia Program

Associate Professor of Oncology


Expertise: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Blood Cancers, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), Hodgkin's Disease, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Medical Oncology, Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), Pediatric Oncology more

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The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Main Entrance)


1800 Orleans St. The Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center Building, 11th Floor Baltimore, MD 21287 map


Dr. Brown's research is focused on developing new therapies for childhood leukemia. Leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow) is the most common form of cancer in children. While great improvements have been made in the rates of cure for children with leukemia overall, certain types of childhood leukemia continue to have very low cure rates with the best known treatments, and new treatments are clearly needed for these children. Furthermore, the standard treatments for childhood leukemia (intensive chemotherapy and, in some cases, bone marrow transplantation) can cause significant, and not uncommonly debilitating, acute and late complications. New treatments that are just as effective against the leukemia, but less toxic to the patient, could vastly improve the outlook for this disease. Recent advances in cancer research have enabled the discovery of genetic changes (mutations) which cause certain types of cancer, and subsequently to drugs which can target these mutated genetic pathways. These targeted drugs have the potential to be more effective and less toxic than the standard treatments.

Dr. Brown's lab has found that a gene called FLT3 (which was initially discovered by Dr. Brown's mentor, Dr. Don Small) is particularly important in the types of childhood leukemia with low cure rates. Several FLT3-targeted drugs (inhibitors) are being developed. Since leukemia is not caused by a single mutation, but rather by several mutations occurring together in the same cells, combinations of drugs are needed. Dr. Brown's lab has identified promising combinations of standard chemotherapy drugs and FLT3 inhibitors that can work together to more effectively kill leukemia cells. Based on this work, Dr. Brown, a member of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, is now leading the first clinical trials of a FLT3 inhibitor combined with chemotherapy in children with leukemia through the Children's Oncology Group international network. In conjunction with these clinical trials, Dr. Brown's lab is performing further experiments in the laboratory to help optimize dosing, to develop a test that can be used to predict which patients are most likely to benefit from the new drugs, and to determine how leukemia cells are able to survive despite treatment.

Hopefully, these efforts will result in significant improvements in the cure rates for these children.

Dr. Brown's lab continues to investigate other ways to improve the treatment of childhood leukemia by developing therapies that can overcome resistance to chemotherapy, and, unlike chemotherapy, are selectively targeted to the mutations that cause leukemia. The success of these efforts depends in large part on the amazing work being done by our colleagues and collaborators here at Hopkins and elsewhere, and by our post-doctoral fellows and technicians who have joined the lab and bring new ideas, energy and a willingness to do the hard work that makes such advances possible. more


  • Director, Pediatric Leukemia Program
  • Associate Professor of Oncology
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics



  • MD, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine (1998)


  • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Pediatrics (2001)


  • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Pediatric Oncology (2004)

Research & Publications

Clinical Trial Keywords

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Selected Publications

Brown, E.E.; Whitby, D.; Vitale, F.; Marshall, V.; Mbisa, G.; Gamache, C.; Lauria, C.; Alberg, A.J.; Serraino, D.; Cordiali-Fei, P.; Messina, A.; Goedert, J.J. Virologic, hematologic, and immunologic risk factors for classic Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer. 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2282-2290.

Brown, P.; Levis, M.; McIntyre, E.; Griesemer, M.; Small, D. Combinations of the FLT3 inhibitor CEP-701 and chemotherapy synergistically kill infant and childhood MLL-rearranged ALL cells in a sequence-dependent manner. Leukemia. 2006 Aug;20(8):1368-1376.

Brown, R.J.; Davidson, N.E. Adjuvant hormonal therapy for premenopausal women with breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 2006 Dec;33(6):657-663.

Carlson, R.W.; Brown, E.; Burstein, H.J.; Gradishar, W.J.; Hudis, C.A.; Loprinzi, C.; Mamounas, E.P.; Perez, E.A.; Pritchard, K.; Ravdin, P.; Recht, A.; Somlo, G.; Theriault, R.L.; Winer, E.P.; Wolff, A.C. NCCN Task Force Report: Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2006 Mar;4 Suppl 1:S1-26.

Cheng, K.Y.; Noble, M.E.; Skamnaki, V.; Brown, N.R.; Lowe, E.D.; Kontogiannis, L.; Shen, K.; Cole, P.A.; Siligardi, G.; Johnson, L.N. The role of the phospho-CDK2/cyclin A recruitment site in substrate recognition. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 11;281(32):23167-23179.

da Motta, A.C.; Tunkel, D.E.; Westra, W.H.; Yousem, D.M. Imaging findings of a hibernoma of the neck. Ajnr. 2006 Sep;27(8):1658-1659.

Hillmen, P.; Young, N.S.; Schubert, J.; Brodsky, R.A.; Socie, G.; Muus, P.; Roth, A.; Szer, J.; Elebute, M.O.; Nakamura, R.; Browne, P.; Risitano, A.M.; Hill, A.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Fu, C.L.; Maciejewski, J.; Rollins, S.A.; Mojcik, C.F.; Rother, R.P.; Luzzatto, L. The complement inhibitor eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 21;355(12):1233-1243.

Levis, M.; Brown, P.; Smith, B.D.; Stine, A.; Pham, R.; Stone, R.; Deangelo, D.; Galinsky, I.; Giles, F.; Estey, E.; Kantarjian, H.; Cohen, P.; Wang, Y.; Roesel, J.; Karp, J.E.; Small, D. Plasma inhibitory activity (PIA): a pharmacodynamic assay reveals insights into the basis for cytotoxic response to FLT3 inhibitors. Blood. 2006 Nov 15;108(10):3477-3483.

Piloto, O.; Nguyen, B.; Huso, D.; Kim, K.T.; Li, Y.; Witte, L.; Hicklin, D.J.; Brown, P.; Small, D. IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples. Cancer Res. 2006 May 1;66(9):4843-4851.

Sampath, P.; Rhines, L.D.; Dimeco, F.; Tyler, B.M.; Park, M.C.; Brem, H. Interstitial docetaxel (taxotere), carmustine and combined interstitial therapy: a novel treatment for experimental malignant glioma. Journal of neuro-oncology. 2006 Oct;80(1):9-17.

Sinibaldi, V.J.; Elza-Brown, K.; Schmidt, J.; Eisenberger, M.A.; Rosenbaum, E.; Denmeade, S.R.; Pili, R.; Walczak, J.; Baker, S.D.; Zahurak, M.; Carducci, M.A. Phase II evaluation of docetaxel plus exisulind in patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma. American journal of clinical oncology. 2006 Aug;29(4):395-398.

Biankin, S.A.; Collector, M.I.; Biankin, A.V.; Brown, L.J.; Kleeberger, W.; Devereux, W.L.; Zahnow, C.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Watkins, D.N.; Sharkis, S.J.; Leach, S.D. A histological survey of green fluorescent protein expression in ''green'' mice: implications for stem cell research. Pathology. 2007 Apr;39(2):247-251.

Bjornsson, H.T.; Brown, L.J.; Fallin, M.D.; Rongione, M.A.; Bibikova, M.; Wickham, E.; Fan, J.B.; Feinberg, A.P. Epigenetic specificity of loss of imprinting of the IGF2 gene in Wilms tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Aug 15;99(16):1270-1273.

Brown, P.; McIntyre, E.; Rau, R.; Meshinchi, S.; Lacayo, N.; Dahl, G.; Alonzo, T.A.; Chang, M.; Arceci, R.J.; Small, D. The incidence and clinical significance of nucleophosmin mutations in childhood AML. Blood. 2007 Aug 1;110(3):979-985.

Deng, L.; Langley, R.J.; Brown, P.H.; Xu, G.; Teng, L.; Wang, Q.; Gonzales, M.I.; Callender, G.G.; Nishimura, M.I.; Topalian, S.L.; Mariuzza, R.A. Structural basis for the recognition of mutant self by a tumor-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cell receptor. Nat Immunol. 2007 Apr;8(4):398-408.

Piloto, O.; Wright, M.; Brown, P.; Kim, K.T.; Levis, M.; Small, D. Prolonged exposure to FLT3 inhibitors leads to resistance via activation of parallel signaling pathways. Blood. 2007 Feb 15;109(4):1643-1652.

Rohrmann, S.; Nelson, W.G.; Rifai, N.; Brown, T.R.; Dobs, A.; Kanarek, N.; Yager, J.D.; Platz, E.A. Serum estrogen, but not testosterone, levels differ between black and white men in a nationally representative sample of Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul;92(7):2519-2525.

Singh, R.; Browning, J.L.; Abi-Habib, R.; Wong, K.; Williams, S.A.; Merchant, R.; Denmeade, S.R.; Buckley, T.J.; Frankel, A.E. Recombinant prostate-specific antigen proaerolysin shows selective protease sensitivity and cell cytotoxicity. Anti-cancer drugs. 2007 Aug;18(7):809-816.

Brown, P.; Smith, F.O. Molecularly targeted therapies for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: progress to date. Paediatric drugs. 2008;10(2):85-92.

Chang, K.J.; Kamel, I.R.; Macura, K.J.; Bluemke, D.A. 3.0-T MR imaging of the abdomen: comparison with 1.5 T. Radiographics. 2008 Nov-Dec;28(7):1983-1998.

Chen, J.Q.; Brown, T.R.; Yager, J.D. Mechanisms of hormone carcinogenesis: evolution of views, role of mitochondria. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2008 July 2008;630:1-18.

Goetze, S.; Lavely, W.C.; Ziessman, H.A.; Wahl, R.L. Visualization of brown adipose tissue with 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile on SPECT/CT. J Nucl Med. 2008 May;49(5):752-756.

LaVeist, T.; Thorpe, R., Jr.; Bowen-Reid, T.; Jackson, J.; Gary, T.; Gaskin, D.; Browne, D. Exploring health disparities in integrated communities: overview of the EHDIC study. J Urban Health. 2008 Jan;85(1):11-21.

Siu, L.L.; Pili, R.; Duran, I.; Messersmith, W.A.; Chen, E.X.; Sullivan, R.; MacLean, M.; King, S.; Brown, S.; Reid, G.K.; Li, Z.; Kalita, A.M.; Laille, E.J.; Besterman, J.M.; Martell, R.E.; Carducci, M.A. Phase I study of MGCD0103 given as a three-times-per-week oral dose in patients with advanced solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):1940-1947.

Albadine, R.; Wang, W.; Brownlee, N.A.; Toubaji, A.; Billis, A.; Argani, P.; Epstein, J.I.; Garvin, A.J.; Cousi, R.; Schaeffer, E.M.; Pavlovich, C.; Netto, G.J. Topoisomerase II alpha status in renal medullary carcinoma: immuno-expression and gene copy alterations of a potential target of therapy. J Urol. 2009 Aug;182(2):735-740.

Argani, P.; Aulmann, S.; Karanjawala, Z.; Fraser, R.B.; Ladanyi, M.; Rodriguez, M.M. Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers: a distinctive neoplasm with overlapping features of PEComa, carcinoma, and melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Apr;33(4):609-619.

Brown, D.A.; Lindmark, F.; Stattin, P.; Balter, K.; Adami, H.O.; Zheng, S.L.; Xu, J.; Isaacs, W.B.; Gronberg, H.; Breit, S.N.; Wiklund, F.E. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1: a new prognostic marker in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 1;15(21):6658-6664.

Brown, P. Adding WT1 to childhood AML alphabet soup. Blood. 2009 Jun 4;113(23):5696-5697.

Hammoud, D.A.; Endres, C.J.; Hammond, E.; Uzuner, O.; Brown, A.; Nath, A.; Kaplin, A.I.; Pomper, M.G. Imaging serotonergic transmission with [(11)C]DASB-PET in depressed and non-depressed patients infected with HIV. Neuroimage. 2009 Oct 21.

Hu, R.; Mukhina, G.L.; Lee, S.H.; Jones, R.J.; Englund, P.T.; Brown, P.; Sharkis, S.J.; Buckley, J.T.; Brodsky, R.A. Silencing of genes required for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis in Burkitt lymphoma. Exp Hematol. 2009 Apr;37(4):423-434 e422.

Rau, R.; Brown, P. Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations in adult and childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: towards definition of a new leukaemia entity. Hematol Oncol. 2009 Dec;27(4):171-181.

Schumacher, K.R.; Popel, A.S.; Anvari, B.; Brownell, W.E.; Spector, A.A. Computational analysis of the tether-pulling experiment to probe plasma membrane-cytoskeleton interaction in cells. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2009 Oct;80(4 Pt 1):041905.

Sun, Y.; Brown, N.K.; Ruddy, M.J.; Miller, M.L.; Lee, Y.; Wang, Y.; Murphy, K.M.; Pfeffer, K.; Chen, L.; Kaye, J.; Fu, Y.X. B and T lymphocyte attenuator tempers early infection immunity. J Immunol. 2009 Aug 1;183(3):1946-1951.

Visvanathan, K.; Chlebowski, R.T.; Hurley, P.; Col, N.F.; Ropka, M.; Collyar, D.; Morrow, M.; Runowicz, C.; Pritchard, K.I.; Hagerty, K.; Arun, B.; Garber, J.; Vogel, V.G.; Wade, J.L.; Brown, P.; Cuzick, J.; Kramer, B.S.; Lippman, S.M. American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update on the use of pharmacologic interventions including tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibition for breast cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jul 1;27(19):3235-3258.

Baba, S.; Jacene, H.A.; Engles, J.M.; Honda, H.; Wahl, R.L. CT Hounsfield units of brown adipose tissue increase with activation: preclinical and clinical studies. J Nucl Med. 2010 Feb;51(2):246-250.

Celedon, A.; Wirtz, D.; Sun, S. Torsional mechanics of DNA are regulated by small-molecule intercalation. J Phys Chem B. 2010 Dec 23;114(50):16929-16935.

Elliott, K.S.; Zeggini, E.; McCarthy, M.I.; Gudmundsson, J.; Sulem, P.; Stacey, S.N.; Thorlacius, S.; Amundadottir, L.; Gronberg, H.; Xu, J.; Gaborieau, V.; Eeles, R.A.; Neal, D.E.; Donovan, J.L.; Hamdy, F.C.; Muir, K.; Hwang, S.J.; Spitz, M.R.; Zanke, B.; Carvajal-Carmona, L.; Brown, K.M.; Hayward, N.K.; Macgregor, S.; Tomlinson, I.P.; Lemire, M.; Amos, C.I.; Murabito, J.M.; Isaacs, W.B.; Easton, D.F.; Brennan, P.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Rafnar, T.; Hunter, D.J.; Chanock, S.J.; Stefansson, K.; Ioannidis, J.P. Evaluation of association of HNF1B variants with diverse cancers: collaborative analysis of data from 19 genome-wide association studies. PLoS One. 2010;5(5):e10858.

Gary-Webb, T.L.; Baptiste-Roberts, K.; Pham, L.; Wesche-Thobaben, J.; Patricio, J.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Brown, A.F.; Jones, L.; Brancati, F.L. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:312.

Hammoud, D.A.; Endres, C.J.; Hammond, E.; Uzuner, O.; Brown, A.; Nath, A.; Kaplin, A.I.; Pomper, M.G. Imaging serotonergic transmission with [11C]DASB-PET in depressed and non-depressed patients infected with HIV. Neuroimage. 2010 Feb 1;49(3):2588-2595.

Jacene, H.A.; Cohade, C.C.; Zhang, Z.; Wahl, R.L. The Relationship between Patients'' Serum Glucose Levels and Metabolically Active Brown Adipose Tissue Detected by PET/CT. Mol Imaging Biol. 2010 Dec 8.

Kahler, C.W.; Leventhal, A.M.; Daughters, S.B.; Clark, M.A.; Colby, S.M.; Ramsey, S.E.; Boergers, J.; Abrams, D.B.; Niaura, R.; Buka, S.L. Relationships of personality and psychiatric disorders to multiple domains of smoking motives and dependence in middle-aged adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Apr;12(4):381-389.

Paik, P.K.; Rudin, C.M.; Brown, A.; Rizvi, N.A.; Takebe, N.; Travis, W.; James, L.; Ginsberg, M.S.; Juergens, R.; Markus, S.; Tyson, L.; Subzwari, S.; Kris, M.G.; Krug, L.M. A phase I study of obatoclax mesylate, a Bcl-2 antagonist, plus topotecan in solid tumor malignancies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 Nov;66(6):1079-1085.

Schafer, E.; Irizarry, R.; Negi, S.; McIntyre, E.; Small, D.; Figueroa, M.E.; Melnick, A.; Brown, P. Promoter hypermethylation in MLL-r infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia: biology and therapeutic targeting. Blood. 2010 Jun 10;115(23):4798-4809.

Singh, K.; Rajan, K.D.; Eberhart, C. Orbital necrobiotic xanthogranuloma associated with systemic IgG4 disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010 Oct;18(5):373-378

Tan, E.J.; Tanner, E.K.; Seeman, T.E.; Xue, Q.L.; Rebok, G.W.; Frick, K.D.; Carlson, M.C.; Wang, T.; Piferi, R.L.; McGill, S.; Whitfield, K.E.; Fried, L.P. Marketing public health through older adult volunteering: Experience Corps as a social marketing intervention. Am J Public Health. 2010 Apr;100(4):727-734.

Woo, S.R.; Li, N.; Bruno, T.C.; Forbes, K.; Brown, S.; Workman, C.; Drake, C.G.; Vignali, D.A. Differential subcellular localization of the regulatory T-cell protein LAG-3 and the coreceptor CD4. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jun;40(6):1768-1777.

Yoshida, T.; Mett, I.; Bhunia, A.K.; Bowman, J.; Perez, M.; Zhang, L.; Gandjeva, A.; Zhen, L.; Chukwueke, U.; Mao, T.; Richter, A.; Brown, E.; Ashush, H.; Notkin, N.; Gelfand, A.; Thimmulappa, R.K.; Rangasamy, T.; Sussan, T.; Cosgrove, G.; Mouded, M.; Shapiro, S.D.; Petrache, I.; Biswal, S.; Feinstein, E.; Tuder, R.M. Rtp801, a suppressor of mTOR signaling, is an essential mediator of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary injury and emphysema. Nat Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):767-773.

Activities & Honors

Professional Activities

  • Executive steering committee, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
  • Executive steering committee, Myeloid Disorders Committee
  • Childrens Oncology Group
  • POETIC pediatric phase I consortium

Patient Ratings & Comments

The Patient Rating score is an average of all responses to physician related questions on the national CG-CAHPS Medical Practice patient experience survey through Press Ganey. Responses are measured on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the best score. Comments are also gathered from our CG-CAHPS Medical Practice Survey through Press Ganey and displayed in their entirety. Patients are de-identified for confidentiality and patient privacy.

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