My clinical interest is in the evaluation and treatment of patients with complex and treatment refractory depression, manic depressive illness, and anxiety. My research interest revolves around the problem of identifying the phenotypic boundaries of bipolar disorder(s). Specifically, I have identified panic disorder and rapid switching as phenomenological features of bipolar illness that may lead to biologically meaningful subtypes. I am also interested in the psychophysiology of anxiety as it relates to mood disorders. Most of my time and energy for teaching is devoted to running the first year psychiatry course.