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Stephen J. Gould, Ph.D.

Stephen J. Gould, Ph.D.

  • Co-Director, Graduate Program in Biological Chemistry
  • Professor of Biological Chemistry

Research Interests

Organelle biogenesis; Peroxisome biogenesis; Virology; Exosome biology; Exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs); Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) more


Stephen J. Gould, Ph.D., is a professor of biological chemistry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

A cell biologist and biochemist, Dr. Gould investigates the formation of HIV particles, which develop as the virus escapes from one cell and infects others. His research has led to the identification of new targets for anti-HIV therapy.

Dr. Gould is co-director of the School of Medicine’s Graduate Program in Biological Chemistry. He also leads the metabolism component of its “Genes to Society” Translational Science Intersessions for third-year medical students.

Dr. Gould earned his doctoral degree in biology at the University of California, San Diego, where he completed a post-doctoral fellowship. He also holds a bachelor’s degree in aquatic biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

He joined the Johns Hopkins faculty in 1991 as an assistant professor of cell biology.

Dr. Gould serves as both the president of the American Society of Exosomes and Microvesicles and the editor-in-chief of Exosomes and Microvesicles.

He also sits on the editorial board of the Journal of Extracellular Vesicles and serves as an ad hoc reviewer for publications that include the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (United States), Cell, Science and Journal of Cell Biology.

He has organized a number of scientific conferences, delivered scores of invited lectures, published approximately 110 journal articles, and authored and co-authored seven book chapters. more


  • Co-Director, Graduate Program in Biological Chemistry
  • Professor of Biological Chemistry

Departments / Divisions

Centers & Institutes



  • Ph.D.; University of California - San Diego - School of Medicine - La Jolla (California) (1989)
  • B.A.; University of California (Santa Barbara) (California) (1984)

Additional Training

  • University of California, San Diego, CA, 1991

Research & Publications

Research Summary

Dr. Gould’s research focuses on the molecular mechanisms behind the biogenesis and uptake of exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs), tiny vesicles secreted by animal cells.

Since they have the same topology as the cells themselves, EMVs can be taken up by adjacent cells, completing a pathway of intercellular vesicle traffic.

Dr. Gould’s lab is examining the role EMVs play in cell polarity, cell-to-cell interactions and intercellular signaling.

His team also is studying ways that HIV and other retroviruses use the exosome biogenesis pathway for the formation of infectious virions – and the consequences of their EMV origin.

Their goals are to identify the cis-acting signals that target proteins to secreted vesicles, the trans-acting factors that mediate EMV biogenesis, and the mechanisms of EMV biogenesis.

The research also aims to determine how HIV exploits the EMV biogenesis pathway and how infection-boosting, protease-generated ligands promote HIV infectivity.

Selected Publications

Gan X, Gould SJ. “HIV Pol inhibits HIV budding and mediates the severe budding defect of Gag-Pol.” PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29421. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029421. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Shen B, Fang Y, Wu N, Gould SJ. “Biogenesis of the posterior pole is mediated by the exosome/microvesicle protein-sorting pathway.” J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 23;286(51):44162-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.274803. Epub 2011 Aug 24.

Gan X, Gould SJ. “Identification of an inhibitory budding signal that blocks the release of HIV particles and exosome/microvesicle proteins.” Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Mar 15;22(6):817-30. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E10-07-0625. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Fang Y, Wu N, Gan X, Yan W, Morrell JC, Gould SJ. “Higher-order oligomerization targets plasma membrane proteins and HIV gag to exosomes.” PLoS Biol. 2007 Jun;5(6):e158.

Booth AM, Fang Y, Fallon JK, Yang JM, Hildreth JE, Gould SJ. “Exosomes and HIV Gag bud from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane.” J Cell Biol. 2006 Mar 13;172(6):923-35.

Academic Affiliations & Courses

Graduate Program Affiliation

Graduate Program in Biological Chemistry

Activities & Honors


  • Rose Johnstone Memorial Lectureship, McGill University, 2010
  • Powell Foundation Fellowship, 1989


  • American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • American Society for Cell Biology
  • International Society for Extracellular Vesicles
  • National Institutes of Health, Study Section CDF4, 2002 - 2004

Professional Activities

  • Editor-in-Chief, Exosomes and Microvesicles, 2013
  • President, American Society of Exosomes and Microvesicles, 2012
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