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References

Caird, M., Hensinger, R., Weiss, N., & Farley, F. (2006). Complications and problems in halo treatment of toddlers: Limited ambulation is recommended. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 26, 750-752.

Cirak, B., Ziegfeld, S., Knight, V., Chang, D., Avellino, A., and Paidas, C. (2004). Spinal injuries in children. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 39(4), 607-612.

Fleming, B. C., Krag, M. H., Huston, Dryver R., Shieaki, H. (2000). Pin loosening in a halo-vest orthosis: A biomechanical study. Spine, 25(11), 1325-1333.

Holmes, S. & Brown, S. (2005). Skeletal pin site care: National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses Guidelines for Orthopaedic Nursing. Orthopaedic Nursing, 24(2), 99-109.

Kyoshima, K., Kakizawa, Y., and Tokushige, K. (2003). Simple cervical spine traction using a halo vest apparatus: technical note. Surgical Neurology, 59(6), 518-521.

Magnum, S. & Sunderland, P. (1993). A comprehensive guide to the halo brace. Application, care, patient teaching. AORN Journal, 58(3), 534-546.

Olson, R. (1996). Halo skeletal traction pin site care: toward developing a standard of care. Rehabilitation Nursing, 21(5), 243-246.

Patterson, M. (2006). Impact of external fixation on adolescents: An integrative research review. Orthopaedic Nursing, 25 (5), 300-8.

Vertullo, C. J., Duke, P., Askin, G. (1997). Pin-site complications of the halo thoracic brace with routine pin re-tightening. Spine, 2(21), 2514-2518.

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