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Nerve Injury

Causes of nerve injuries

Injury to the peripheral nerves can occur through a variety of trauma. Common causes of nerve injuries include:

  • Laceration
  • Focal contusion (gunshot wounds)
  • Stretch/traction injury
  • Compression
  • Drug injection injury
  • Electrical injury

Nerve injuries we treat:

Diagnosis of a nerve injury

Sunderland Classification System

Your doctor will need to determine the exact location and severity of the nerve injury. A classification system called the Sunderland Classification system divides nerve injuries into five parts. These include:

  1. First-degree injury: A reversible local conduction block at the site of the injury. This injury does not require surgical intervention and usually will recover within a matter hours to a few weeks.
  2. Second-degree injury: There is a loss of continuity of the axons or electrical wires within the nerve. If this kind of injury can be confirmed through pre-operative nerve testing, surgical intervention is usually not required.
  3. Third-degree injury: There is damage to the axons and their supporting structures within the nerve. In this case, recovery is variable. Intra-operative nerve conduction studies are often able to help predict outcome and need for simple cleaning of the nerve (neurolysis) or a more extensive repair with grafting.
  4. Fourth-degree injury: In this case, there is damage to the axons and the surrounding tissues sufficient to create scarring that prevents nerve regeneration. Intra-operative electrical testing confirms that no electrical energy can be passed along the neural pathways in this injured nerve. Surgical intervention with nerve grafting is necessary to repair the damage.
  5. Fifth-degree injury: These injuries are usually found in laceration or severe stretch injuries. The nerve is divided into two. The only way to repair a fifth-degree injury is through surgery.

Diagnostic Testing

In order to fully determine the extent of the damage to the nerve, your doctor may order an EMG / NCV, an electrical conduction test to determine the passage of electrical currents through the nerves. These tests are sometimes done during actual surgery while the patient is sedated.

Your doctor may also order any of the following imaging techniques:

  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • MRI Neurography

Treatment for nerve injuries

Nonsurgical treatment for nerve injuries

Nonsurgical treatment for nerve injuries may include:

  • Acupuncture
  • Massage therapy
  • Medication
  • Orthotics
  • Physical therapy and rehabilitation
  • Weight loss management

Learn more about nonsurgical treatment for peripheral nerve injuries.

Surgery for nerve injuries

The goal of surgical repair is to repair the nerves so that function is restored to the area. Depending on the type and severity of the injury, your doctor will discuss different methods of nerve repair and create a treatment plan that is appropriate for you. Learn more about surgery for nerve injuries.

Dr. Allan Belzberg is a world-renowned neurosurgeon in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. He treats on average 500 nerve injuries every year and has published research publications focusing on improving surgical repairs of nerve injuries and discovering new treatment options. Catch up on the latest research on nerve injuries.

To make an appointment or request a consultation, contact the Johns Hopkins Peripheral Nerve Surgery Center at 410-614-9923.

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Maryland Patients

To request an appointment or refer a patient, please contact the Johns Hopkins Peripheral Nerve Surgery Center at 410-614-9923.
Request an Appointment

Adult Neurology: 410-955-9441
Pediatric Neurology: 410-955-4259
Adult Neurosurgery: 410-955-6406
Pediatric Neurosurgery: 410-955-7337


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