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Ciccarone Articles

Ciccarone Center Research

Topic

Hormones

Reductions in glucose among postmenopausal women who use and do not use estrogen therapy.
By: Kim C, Kong S, Laughlin GA, Golden SH, Mather KJ, Nan B, Randolph JF Jr, Edelstein SL, Labrie F, Buschur E, Barrett-Connor E; for The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.
Among postmenopausal women who do not use estrogen therapy (ET), we have previously reported that intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) leads to increases in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and that such increases are associated with reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour postchallenge glucose (2HG). Oral ET decreases FPG and increases 2HG while increasing both SHBG and estradiol (E2). It is unknown if ILS reduces glucose among ET users, if changes in SHBG and E2 might mediate any glucose decreases in ET users, and if these patterns differ from those in non-ET users. We conclude that among glucose-intolerant ET users, interventions to reduce glucose are effective but possibly mediated through different pathways than among women who do not use ET.
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Association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
By: Colangelo LA, Craft LL, Ouyang P, Liu K, Schreiner PJ, Michos ED, Gapstur SM.
In early postmenopausal women, sex hormones were associated with incident depressive symptoms.
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Diurnal salivary cortisol and urinary catecholamines are associated with diabetes mellitus: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
By: Champaneri S, Xu X, Carnethon MR, Bertoni AG, Seeman T, Diez Roux A, Golden SH.

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Low free testosterone in HIV-infected men is not associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease.
By: Monroe AK, Dobs AS, Xu X, Palella FJ, Kingsley LA, Post WS, Witt MD, Brown TT.

Low testosterone (T) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increased mortality in the general population; however, the impact of T on subclinical CVD in HIV disease is unknown. This study examined the relationships among free testosterone (FT), subclinical CVD, and HIV disease. Compared with HIV-uninfected men, HIV-infected men had lower FT, as well as more prevalent carotid lesions. In both groups, FT was not associated with CAC presence, log carotid IMT, or carotid lesion presence, suggesting that FT does not influence subclinical CVD in this population of men with and at risk for HIV infection.

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Associations of salivary cortisol levels with inflammatory markers: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
By: DeSantis AS, DiezRoux AV, Hajat A, Aiello AE, Golden SH, Jenny NS, Seeman TE, Shea S.

Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors have been found to be associated with systemic inflammation. Although stress is often proposed as a contributor to these associations, no population studies have investigated the links between inflammation and biomarkers of stress. The current study examines associations between daily cortisol profiles and inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) in a population-based sample of 869 adults with repeat measures of cortisol over multiple days. Persons with higher levels of IL-6 had a less pronounced cortisol awakening response, a less steep daily decline, and higher cortisol area under the curve for the day with associations persisting after controls for risk factors and other cytokines. Persons with higher levels of TNF-a had lower cortisol levels upon waking, and flatter daily decline, although associations with decline were attenuated when controlling for inflammatory risk factors. Higher levels of IL-10 were associated with marginally flatter daily cortisol decline (p<.10). This study is the first to identify associations of basal cortisol activity and inflammatory markers in a population based sample. Findings are consistent with the possibility that HPA axis activity may mediate associations between psychosocial stressors and inflammatory processes. Additional prospective data are necessary to clarify the directionality of associations between cortisol and inflammatory markers.

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Association of baseline sex hormone levels with baseline and longitudinal changes in waist-to-hip ratio: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
By: Vaidya D, Dobs A, Gapstur SM, Golden SH, Cushman M, Liu K, Ouyang P.
Sex hormones are associated with waist-to-hip ratio at baseline and also during follow-up above and beyond their baseline association. Future research is needed to determine if manipulation of hormones is associated with changes in central obesity.
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Sex-steroid hormones and electrocardiographic QT-interval duration: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
By: Zhang Y, Ouyang P, Post WS, Dalal D, Vaidya D, Blasco-Colmenares E, Soliman EZ, Tomaselli GF, Guallar E.
The association between physiologic levels of sex hormones and QT-interval duration in humans was evaluated using data from 727 men enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2,942 men and 1,885 postmenopausal women enrolled in MESA. Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum and free testosterone was calculated from those values. The findings suggest that testosterone levels may explain differences in QT-interval duration between men and women and could be a contributor to population variability in QT-interval duration among men.
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Reliability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis assessment methods for use in population-based studies.
By: Golden SH, Wand GS, Malhotra S, Kamel I, Horton K.
Population-based studies have been hampered in exploring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity as a potential explanatory link between stress-related and metabolic disorders due to their lack of incorporation of reliable measures of chronic cortisol exposure. The purpose of this review is to summarize current literature on the reliability of HPA axis measures and to discuss the feasibility of performing them in population-based studies.
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Sex steroid hormone concentrations and risk of death in U.S. men.
By: Menke A, Guallar E, Rohrmann S, Nelson WG, Rifai N, Kanarek N, Feinleib M, Michos ED, Dobs A, Platz EA.
Men with low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may have a higher risk of mortality within 9 years of hormone measurement. Future studies should be conducted to fully characterize the association of low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations and mortality in men and to describe the mechanism underlying the association.
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