What is rubella?
Rubella is sometimes called German
measles. It is a viral infection. It usually causes a mild illness in children. Adults
have a slightly more severe illness. The disease is spread person-to-person through
droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. It takes 2 to 3 weeks
after exposure for symptoms to develop. The illness is mostly mild. But the virus can
cause serious birth defects in pregnant women. A vaccine is effective in preventing
What causes rubella?
Rubella is caused by a virus. It is
spread from person-to-person through droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an
infected person. Most outbreaks of rubella happen among young adults and adults who have
not been vaccinated and have not had the disease before.
Who is at risk for rubella?
If you have not had the vaccine or never had rubella, you are at risk for the disease.
What are the symptoms of rubella?
Each person may have different
symptoms. But these are the most common symptoms of rubella:
Rubella in pregnant women may cause serious complications in the fetus. This includes a range of severe birth defects.
The symptoms of rubella may look
like other health problems. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a
How is rubella diagnosed?
Along with a complete health
history and medical exam, diagnosis is often confirmed with blood tests.
How is rubella treated?
Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on
how severe the condition is.
Treatment for rubella is usually
limited to acetaminophen for fever. There are no medicines to treat the virus infection
What are possible complications of rubella?
For most people, rubella is a mild disease and does not cause complications. If a woman is infected with the disease while pregnant, her unborn baby can develop defects. Possible birth defects caused by rubella include:
Liver and spleen damage
Can rubella be prevented?
The measles, mumps, and rubella
(MMR) vaccine protects against these 3 viruses. MMR makes most people immune to rubella
(along with measles and mumps). Also, people who have had rubella are immune for
Usually, the first dose of the MMR
vaccine is given when a child is 12 to 15 months old. A second dose is often given at 4
to 6 years of age. Woman who are considering pregnancy should talk with their
healthcare provider about being tested for immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. If
not protected, it's best to get vaccinated at least 4 weeks before trying to become
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Rubella usually goes away on its
own. But tell your healthcare provider if:
Your symptoms get worse or you have
You are pregnant and aren't sure if
you have been vaccinated against rubella.
You get a severe headache, stiff neck,
earache, or problems with your vision either during the measles or afterward.
Key points about rubella
Rubella is a viral infection. It causes a mild illness in children and slightly more severe illness in adults.
If a woman is infected with the disease while pregnant, her unborn baby can be born with severe birth defects.
Rubella can be prevented by the combination vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.