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William R. Bishai, M.D., Ph.D.

William R. Bishai, M.D., Ph.D.
Co-Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Tuberculosis Research

William R. Bishai, M.D., Ph.D.
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I am interested in the molecular pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses and adapts to a wide array of conditions during the disease process, it is clear that the regulation of expression of virulence factors plays an important role in pathogenesis. Hence a theme of my research has been to assess mycobacterial genes important in gene regulation.

Other active interests are cell division in mycobacteria and the pathogenesis of caseation and cavitation. The use of the mouse and rabbit models of tuberculosis has been a prominent aspect of these studies. Goals of the research program are first to better understand tuberculosis pathogenesis, and then to employ this understanding towards improved drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics.

Mailing address:

William Bishai, MD, PhD
Co-Director, Center for Tuberculosis Research
Dept. of Medicine, Div. of Infectious Diseases
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
1550 Orleans St. Room 108
Baltimore, MD 21231-1001

Tel: 410-955-3507
Fax: 410-614-8173


To read some of these publications online, click here. Please note that to read the full text of some of these articles requires that you have an online subscription to the journal.

1. Nedeltchev, G. G., T. R. Raghunand, M. S. Jassal, S. Lun, Q. J. Cheng, and W.R. Bishai. 2009. Extrapulmonary dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a bronchoscopic rabbit model of cavitary tuberculosis. Infect Immun 77:598-603.
2. Jassal, M., and W.R. Bishai. 2009. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis 9:19-30.
3. Greenberg, J. D., G. Reed, J. M. Kremer, E. Tindall, A. Kavanaugh, C. Zheng, W. Bishai, and M. Hochberg. 2009. Association of Methotrexate and TNF antagonists with risk of infection outcomes including opportunistic infections in the CORRONA registry. Ann Rheum Dis.
4. Converse, P. J., P. C. Karakousis, L. G. Klinkenberg, A. K. Kesavan, L. H. Ly, S. S. Allen, J. H. Grosset, S. K. Jain, G. Lamichhane, Y. C. Manabe, D. N. McMurray, E. L. Nuermberger, and W.R. Bishai. 2009. Role of the dosR-dosS two-component regulatory system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in three animal models. Infect Immun 77:1230-7.
5. Conde, M. B., A. Efron, C. Loredo, G. R. De Souza, N. P. Graca, M. C. Cezar, M. Ram, M. A. Chaudhary, W.R. Bishai, A. L. Kritski, and R. E. Chaisson. 2009. Moxifloxacin versus ethambutol in the initial treatment of tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial. Lancet 373:1183-9.
6. Be, N. A., K. S. Kim, W.R. Bishai, and S. K. Jain. 2009. Pathogenesis of central nervous system tuberculosis. Curr Mol Med 9:94-9.
7. Alahari, A., L. Alibaud, X. Trivelli, R. Gupta, G. Lamichhane, R. C. Reynolds, W.R. Bishai, Y. Guerardel, and L. Kremer. 2009. Mycolic acid methyltransferase, MmaA4, is necessary for thiacetazone susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mol Microbiol 71:1263-77.
8. Manabe, Y. C., A. K. Kesavan, J. Lopez-Molina, C. L. Hatem, M. Brooks, R. Fujiwara, K. Hochstein, M. L. Pitt, J. Tufariello, J. Chan, D. N. McMurray, W.R. Bishai, A. M. Dannenberg, Jr., and S. Mendez. 2008. The aerosol rabbit model of TB latency, reactivation and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 88:187-96.
9. Lee, J. H., P. C. Karakousis, and W.R. Bishai. 2008. Roles of SigB and SigF in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor network. J Bacteriol 190:699-707.
10. Lee, J. H., D. E. Geiman, and W.R. Bishai. 2008. Role of stress response sigma factor SigG in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Bacteriol 190:1128-33.
11. Klinkenberg, L. G., L. A. Sutherland, W.R. Bishai, and P. C. Karakousis. 2008. Metronidazole lacks activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of latency. J Infect Dis 198:275-83.
12. Karakousis, P. C., E. P. Williams, and W.R. Bishai. 2008. Altered expression of isoniazid-regulated genes in drug-treated dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 61:323-31.
13. Be, N. A., G. Lamichhane, J. Grosset, S. Tyagi, Q. J. Cheng, K. S. Kim, W.R. Bishai, and S. K. Jain. 2008. Murine model to study the invasion and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the central nervous system. J Infect Dis 198:1520-8.
14. Abdul-Majid, K. B., L. H. Ly, P. J. Converse, D. E. Geiman, D. N. McMurray, and W.R. Bishai. 2008. Altered cellular infiltration and cytokine levels during early Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigC mutant infection are associated with late-stage disease attenuation and milder immunopathology in mice. BMC Microbiol 8:151.
15. Williams, E. P., J. H. Lee, W.R. Bishai, C. Colantuoni, and P. C. Karakousis. 2007. Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigF regulates genes encoding cell wall-associated proteins and directly regulates the transcriptional regulatory gene phoY1. J Bacteriol 189:4234-42.
16. Rosenthal, I. M., M. Zhang, K. N. Williams, C. A. Peloquin, S. Tyagi, A. A. Vernon, W.R. Bishai, R. E. Chaisson, J. H. Grosset, and E. L. Nuermberger. 2007. Daily dosing of rifapentine cures tuberculosis in three months or less in the murine model. PLoS Med 4:e344.
17. Lun, S., and W.R. Bishai. 2007. Characterization of a novel cell wall-anchored protein with carboxylesterase activity required for virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem 282:18348-56.
18. Lamichhane, G., and W. Bishai. 2007. Defining the 'survivasome' of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat Med 13:280-2.
19. Jain, S. K., S. M. Hernandez-Abanto, Q. J. Cheng, P. Singh, L. H. Ly, L. G. Klinkenberg, N. E. Morrison, P. J. Converse, E. Nuermberger, J. Grosset, D. N. McMurray, P. C. Karakousis, G. Lamichhane, and W.R. Bishai. 2007. Accelerated detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes essential for bacterial survival in guinea pigs, compared with mice. J Infect Dis 195:1634-42.
20. Almeida, D., E. Nuermberger, S. Tyagi, W.R. Bishai, and J. Grosset. 2007. In vivo validation of the mutant selection window hypothesis with moxifloxacin in a murine model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:4261-6.
21. Raghunand, T. R., W.R. Bishai, and P. Chen. 2006. Towards establishing a method to screen for inhibitors of essential genes in mycobacteria: evaluation of the acetamidase promoter. Int J Antimicrob Agents 28:36-41.
22. Raghunand, T. R., and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Mycobacterium smegmatis whmD and its homologue Mycobacterium tuberculosis whiB2 are functionally equivalent. Microbiology 152:2735-47.
23. Raghunand, T. R., and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Mapping essential domains of Mycobacterium smegmatis WhmD: insights into WhiB structure and function. J Bacteriol 188:6966-76.
24. Nuermberger, E., I. Rosenthal, S. Tyagi, K. N. Williams, D. Almeida, C. A. Peloquin, W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Grosset. 2006. Combination chemotherapy with the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 and first-line drugs in a murine model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2621-5.
25. Lamichhane, G., T. R. Raghunand, N. E. Morrison, S. C. Woolwine, S. Tyagi, K. Kandavelou, and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Deletion of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasomal ATPase homologue gene produces a slow-growing strain that persists in host tissues. J Infect Dis 194:1233-40.
26. Jain, S. K., M. Paul-Satyaseela, G. Lamichhane, K. S. Kim, and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion and traversal across an in vitro human blood-brain barrier as a pathogenic mechanism for central nervous system tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 193:1287-95.
27. Geiman, D. E., T. R. Raghunand, N. Agarwal, and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Differential gene expression in response to exposure to antimycobacterial agents and other stress conditions among seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis whiB-like genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2836-41.
28. Agarwal, N., S. C. Woolwine, S. Tyagi, and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor SigM: virulence assessment and identification of SigM-dependent genes. Infect Immun.
29. Agarwal, N., T. R. Raghunand, and W.R. Bishai. 2006. Regulation of the expression of whiB1 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of cAMP receptor protein. Microbiology 152:2749-56.
30. Zetola, N., J. S. Francis, E. L. Nuermberger, and W.R. Bishai. 2005. Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging threat. Lancet Infect Dis 5:275-86.
31. Tyagi, S., E. Nuermberger, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Williams, I. Rosenthal, N. Lounis, W. Bishai, and J. Grosset. 2005. Bactericidal activity of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 in a murine model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2289-93.
32. Rosenthal, I. M., K. Williams, S. Tyagi, A. A. Vernon, C. A. Peloquin, W.R. Bishai, J. H. Grosset, and E. L. Nuermberger. 2005. Weekly Moxifloxacin and Rifapentine is More Active than the Denver Regimen in Murine Tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
33. Nuermberger, E., S. Tyagi, K. N. Williams, I. Rosenthal, W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Grosset. 2005. Rifapentine, Moxifloxacin or DNA Vaccine Improves Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis in a Mouse Model. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
34. Nuermberger, E., K. Helke, and W.R. Bishai. 2005. Low-dose aerosol model of pneumococcal pneumonia in the mouse: utility for evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. Int J Antimicrob Agents.
35. Neurenberger, E., W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Groose. 2005. [Latent tuberculosis infection]. Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk:45-51.
36. Lamichhane, G., S. Tyagi, and W.R. Bishai. 2005. Designer arrays for defined mutant analysis to detect genes essential for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mouse lungs. Infect Immun 73:2533-40.
37. Jakimowicz, P., M. R. Cheesman, W.R. Bishai, K. F. Chater, A. J. Thomson, and M. J. Buttner. 2005. Evidence that the Streptomyces developmental protein WhiD, a member of the WhiB family, binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster. J Biol Chem 280:8309-15.
38. Ginsburg, A. S., R. Sun, H. Calamita, C. P. Scott, W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Grosset. 2005. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis during continuously dosed moxifloxacin monotherapy in a mouse model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3977-9.
39. Ginsburg, A. S., J. Lee, S. C. Woolwine, J. H. Grosset, F. M. Hamzeh, and W.R. Bishai. 2005. Modeling In Vivo Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Moxifloxacin Therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection by Using a Novel Cartridge System. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:853-6.
40. Calamita, H., C. Ko, S. Tyagi, T. Yoshimatsu, N. E. Morrison, and W.R. Bishai. 2005. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigD sigma factor controls the expression of ribosome-associated gene products in stationary phase and is required for full virulence. Cell Microbiol 7:233-44.
41. Bishai, W.R. 2005. Clinical significance of pneumococcal resistance and factors influencing outcomes. Treat Respir Med 4 Suppl 1:19-23.
42. Sun, R., P. J. Converse, C. Ko, S. Tyagi, N. E. Morrison, and W.R. Bishai. 2004. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis alternative RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor, SigC, is required for mouse lethality but not bacterial persistence in mouse tissues. Mol Microbiol 52:25-38.
43. Williams, D. L., M. Torrero, P. R. Wheeler, R. W. Truman, M. Yoder, N. Morrison, W.R. Bishai, and T. P. Gillis. 2004. Biological implications of Mycobacterium leprae gene expression during infection. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 8:58-72.
44. Nuermberger, E. L., T. Yoshimatsu, S. Tyagi, K. Williams, I. Rosenthal, R. J. O'Brien, A. A. Vernon, R. E. Chaisson, W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Grosset. 2004. Moxifloxacin-containing regimens of reduced duration produce a stable cure in murine tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:1131-4.
45. Nuermberger, E., W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Grosset. 2004. Latent tuberculosis infection. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 25:317-36.
46. Karakousis, P. C., T. Yoshimatsu, G. Lamichhane, S. C. Woolwine, E. L. Nuermberger, J. Grosset, and W.R. Bishai. 2004. Dormancy phenotype displayed by extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis within artificial granulomas in mice. J Exp Med 200:647-57.
47. Jakimowicz, P., M. R. Cheesman, W.R. Bishai, K. F. Chater, A. J. Thomson, and M. J. Buttner. 2004. Evidence that the streptomyces developmental protein WhiD, a member of the WhiB family, binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster. J Biol Chem.
48. Geiman, D. E., D. Kaushal, C. Ko, S. Tyagi, Y. C. Manabe, B. G. Schroeder, R. D. Fleischmann, N. E. Morrison, P. J. Converse, P. Chen, and W.R. Bishai. 2004. Attenuation of late-stage disease in mice infected by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking the SigF alternate sigma factor and identification of SigF-dependent genes by microarray analysis. Infect Immun 72:1733-45.
49. Dorman, S. E., C. L. Hatem, S. Tyagi, K. Aird, J. Lopez-Molina, M. L. Pitt, B. C. Zook, A. M. Dannenberg, Jr., W.R. Bishai, and Y. C. Manabe. 2004. Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: Clues from Studies with Inbred and Outbred New Zealand White Rabbits. Infect Immun 72:1700-1705.
50. Saviola, B., S. C. Woolwine, and W.R. Bishai. 2003. Isolation of acid-inducible genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the use of recombinase-based in iivo expression technology. Infect. Immun. 71:1379-1388.
51. Nuermberger, E. L., T. Yoshimatsu, S. Tyagi, R. J. O'Brien, A. N. Vernon, R. E. Chaisson, W.R. Bishai, and J. H. Grosset. 2003. Moxifloxacin-containing regimen greatly reduces time to culture conversion in murine tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
52. Nuermberger, E. L., and W.R. Bishai. 2003. Significance of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Antimicrob Chemother 52:524-5; author reply 525.
53. Manabe, Y. C., A. M. Dannenberg, Jr., S. K. Tyagi, C. L. Hatem, M. Yoder, S. C. Woolwine, B. C. Zook, M. L. Pitt, and W.R. Bishai. 2003. Different Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cause Various Spectrums of Disease in the Rabbit Model of Tuberculosis. Infect Immun 71:6004-6011.
54. Lamichhane, G., M. Zignol, N. J. Blades, D. E. Geiman, A. Dougherty, J. Grosset, K. W. Broman, and W.R. Bishai. 2003. A postgenomic method for predicting essential genes at subsaturation levels of mutagenesis: Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7213-8.
55. Ginsburg, A. S., S. C. Woolwine, N. Hooper, W. H. Benjamin, Jr., W.R. Bishai, S. E. Dorman, and T. R. Sterling. 2003. The Rapid Development of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in M. tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 349:1977-1978.
56. Ginsburg, A. S., N. Hooper, N. Parrish, K. E. Dooley, S. E. Dorman, J. Booth, M. Diener-West, W. G. Merz, W.R. Bishai, and T. R. Sterling. 2003. Fluoroquinolone resistance in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 37:1448-52.
57. Ginsburg, A. S., J. H. Grosset, and W.R. Bishai. 2003. Fluoroquinolones, tuberculosis, and resistance. Lancet Infect Dis 3:432-42.
58. Bishai, W. 2003. A testament to sustained macrolide efficacy. Clin Infect Dis 36:935-6; author reply 936-7.
59. Ando, M., T. Yoshimatsu, C. Ko, P. J. Converse, and W.R. Bishai. 2003. Deletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor E results in delayed time to death with bacterial persistence in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice. Infect Immun 71:7170-2.
60. Ando, M., Y. C. Manabe, P. J. Converse, E. Miyazaki, R. Harrison, J. R. Murphy, and W.R. Bishai. 2003. Characterization of the Role of the Divalent Metal Ion-Dependent Transcriptional Repressor MntR in the Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect. Immun. 71:2584-2590.
61. Yoshimatsu, T., E. Nuermberger, S. Tyagi, R. Chaisson, W. Bishai, and J. Grosset. 2002. Bactericidal activity of increasing daily and weekly doses of moxifloxacin in murine tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1875-9.
62. Woolwine, S. C., and W.R. Bishai. 2002. Mycobacterial genetics: the sensibility of antisense. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:318-9.
63. Randhawa, G. S., W.R. Bishai, and G. W. Comstock. 2002. Analysis of data from individuals demonstrates high discordance between IFN-gamma assays and PPD-tuberculin skin tests used in screening for tuberculosis infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 6:89; discussion 90.
64. Randhawa, G. S., and W.R. Bishai. 2002. Beneficial impact of genome projects on tuberculosis control. Infect Dis Clin North Am 16:145-61.
65. Park, W. G., W.R. Bishai, R. E. Chaisson, and S. E. Dorman. 2002. Performance of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay in drug susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 40:4750-2.
66. Oursler, K. K., R. D. Moore, W.R. Bishai, S. M. Harrington, D. S. Pope, and R. E. Chaisson. 2002. Survival of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: clinical and molecular epidemiologic factors. Clin Infect Dis 34:752-9.
67. Manabe, Y. C., C. P. Scott, and W.R. Bishai. 2002. Naturally attenuated, orally administered Mycobacterium microti as a tuberculosis vaccine is better than subcutaneous Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Infect Immun 70:1566-70.
68. Kaushal, D., B. G. Schroeder, S. Tyagi, T. Yoshimatsu, C. Scott, C. Ko, L. Carpenter, J. Mehrotra, Y. C. Manabe, R. D. Fleischmann, and W.R. Bishai. 2002. Reduced immunopathology and mortality despite tissue persistence in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking alternative sigma factor, SigH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:8330-5.
69. Gounder, C., F. C. De Queiroz Mello, M. B. Conde, W.R. Bishai, A. L. Kritski, R. E. Chaisson, and S. E. Dorman. 2002. Field evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 40:1989-93.
70. Fleischmann, R. D., D. Alland, J. A. Eisen, L. Carpenter, O. White, J. Peterson, R. DeBoy, R. Dodson, M. Gwinn, D. Haft, E. Hickey, J. F. Kolonay, W. C. Nelson, L. A. Umayam, M. Ermolaeva, S. L. Salzberg, A. Delcher, T. Utterback, J. Weidman, H. Khouri, J. Gill, A. Mikula, W. Bishai, W.R. Jacobs Jr, Jr., J. C. Venter, and C. M. Fraser. 2002. Whole-genome comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical and laboratory strains. J Bacteriol 184:5479-90.
71. Cronin, W. A., J. E. Golub, M. J. Lathan, L. N. Mukasa, N. Hooper, J. H. Razeq, N. G. Baruch, D. Mulcahy, W. H. Benjamin, L. S. Magder, G. T. Strickland, and W.R. Bishai. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in a low- to moderate-incidence state: are contact investigations enough? Emerg Infect Dis 8:1271-9.
72. Bishai, W. 2002. The in vivo--in vitro paradox in pneumococcal respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 49:433-6.
73. Bellete, B., J. Coberly, G. L. Barnes, C. Ko, R. E. Chaisson, G. W. Comstock, and W.R. Bishai. 2002. Evaluation of a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in 2 study populations. Clin Infect Dis 34:1449-56.
74. Wendel, K. A., K. S. Alwood, R. Gachuhi, R. E. Chaisson, W.R. Bishai, and T. R. Sterling. 2001. Paradoxical worsening of tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons. Chest 120:193-7.
75. Wagner, K. R., and W.R. Bishai. 2001. Issues in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Aids 15:S203-12.
76. Mehrotra, J., and W.R. Bishai. 2001. Regulation of virulence genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Med Microbiol 291:171-82.
77. Mazurek, G. H., P. A. LoBue, C. L. Daley, J. Bernardo, A. A. Lardizabal, W.R. Bishai, M. F. Iademarco, and J. S. Rothel. 2001. Comparison of a whole-blood interferon gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing for detecting latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Jama 286:1740-7.
78. Golub, J. E., W. A. Cronin, O. O. Obasanjo, W. Coggin, K. Moore, D. S. Pope, D. Thompson, T. R. Sterling, S. Harrington, W.R. Bishai, and R. E. Chaisson. 2001. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through casual contact with an infectious case. Arch Intern Med 161:2254-8.
79. Cronin, W. A., J. E. Golub, L. S. Magder, N. G. Baruch, M. J. Lathan, L. N. Mukasa, N. Hooper, J. H. Razeq, D. Mulcahy, W. H. Benjamin, and W.R. Bishai. 2001. Epidemiologic usefulness of spoligotyping for secondary typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with low copy numbers of IS6110. J Clin Microbiol 39:3709-11.
80. Bishai, W. 2001. Tuberculosis transmission--rogue pathogen or rogue patient? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164:1104-5.
81. Sterling, T. R., D. Thompson, R. L. Stanley, P. D. McElroy, A. Madison, K. Moore, R. Ridzon, S. Harrington, W.R. Bishai, R. E. Chaisson, and S. Bur. 2000. A multi-state outbreak of tuberculosis among members of a highly mobile social network: implications for tuberculosis elimination. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 4:1066-73.
82. Sterling, T. R., D. S. Pope, W.R. Bishai, S. Harrington, R. R. Gershon, and R. E. Chaisson. 2000. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a cadaver to an embalmer. N Engl J Med 342:246-8.
83. Soliveri, J. A., J. Gomez, W.R. Bishai, and K. F. Chater. 2000. Multiple paralogous genes related to the Streptomyces coelicolor developmental regulatory gene whiB are present in Streptomyces and other actinomycetes. Microbiology 146:333-43.
84. Manabe, Y. C., A. M. Dannenberg, Jr., and W.R. Bishai. 2000. What we can learn from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome sequencing projects. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 4:S18-23.
85. Manabe, Y. C., and W.R. Bishai. 2000. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-persistence, patience, and winning by waiting. Nat Med 6:1327-9.
86. Gomez, J. E., and W.R. Bishai. 2000. whmD is an essential mycobacterial gene required for proper septation and cell division. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8554-9.
87. Ellingson, J. L., J. R. Stabel, W.R. Bishai, R. Frothingham, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of a practical PCR panel assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies. Mol Cell Probes 14:153-61.
88. Dannenberg, A. M., W.R. Bishai, N. Parrish, R. Ruiz, W. Johnson, B. C. Zook, J. W. Boles, and L. M. Pitt. 2000. Efficacies of BCG and vole bacillus (Mycobacterium microti) vaccines in preventing clinically apparent pulmonary tuberculosis in rabbits: a preliminary report. Vaccine 19:796-800.
89. Chen, P., R. E. Ruiz, Q. Li, R. F. Silver, and W.R. Bishai. 2000. Construction and characterization of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking the alternate sigma factor gene, sigF. Infect Immun 68:5575-80.
90. Chen, P., J. E. Gomez, and W.R. Bishai. 2000. Mycobacterial transcription regulation in stationary phase., p. 149-156. In G. R. Hatful and W.R. Jacobs, Jr. (ed.), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
91. Bishai, W.R. 2000. Rekindling old controversy on elusive lair of latent tuberculosis. Lancet 356:2113-4.
92. Bishai, W., A. B. Brueggemann, D. P. Nicolau, I. Steinberg, E. Spiritus, C. Tanigawa, S. Koenig, R. E. Chaisson, B. A. Browne, and D. M. Yoder. 2000. Roundtable discussion. Optimizing the use of antimicrobial therapy. Am J Manag Care 6:S1222-35.
93. Bishai, W. 2000. Lipid lunch for persistent pathogen. Nature 406:683-5.
94. Bishai, W. 2000. Is drug resistance affecting treatment outcomes? Am J Manag Care 6:S1197-201.
95. Sterling, T. R., K. Alwood, R. Gachuhi, W. Coggin, D. Blazes, W.R. Bishai, and R. E. Chaisson. 1999. Relapse rates after short-course (6-month) treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. Aids 13:1899-904.
96. Parrish, N. M., F. P. Kuhajda, H. S. Heine, W.R. Bishai, and J. D. Dick. 1999. Antimycobacterial activity of cerulenin and its effects on lipid biosynthesis. J Antimicrob Chemother 43:219-26.
97. Miyazaki, E., M. Miyazaki, J. M. Chen, R. E. Chaisson, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. Moxifloxacin (BAY12-8039), a new 8-methoxyquinolone, is active in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:85-9.
98. Miyazaki, E., J. M. Chen, C. Ko, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. The Staphylococcus aureus rsbW (orf159) gene encodes an anti-sigma factor of SigB. J Bacteriol 181:2846-51.
99. Miyazaki, E., R. E. Chaisson, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. Analysis of rifapentine for preventive therapy in the Cornell mouse model of latent tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2126-30.
100. Michele, T. M., C. Ko, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. Exposure to antibiotics induces expression of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigF gene: implications for chemotherapy against mycobacterial persistors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:218-25.
101. Manabe, Y. C., B. J. Saviola, L. Sun, J. R. Murphy, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. Attenuation of virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis expressing a constitutively active iron repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:12844-8.
102. Manabe, Y. C., J. M. Chen, C. G. Ko, P. Chen, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. Conditional sigma factor expression, using the inducible acetamidase promoter, reveals that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigF gene modulates expression of the 16-kilodalton alpha-crystallin homologue. J Bacteriol 181:7629-33.
103. Kimura, M., P. J. Converse, J. Astemborski, J. S. Rothel, D. Vlahov, G. W. Comstock, N. M. Graham, R. E. Chaisson, and W.R. Bishai. 1999. Comparison between a whole blood interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin testing for the detection of tuberculosis infection among patients at risk for tuberculosis exposure. J Infect Dis 179:1297-300.
104. Head, S. R., K. Parikh, Y. H. Rogers, W. Bishai, P. Goelet, and M. T. Boyce-Jacino. 1999. Solid-phase sequence scanning for drug resistance detection in tuberculosis. Mol Cell Probes 13:81-7.
105. Bishai, W.R., A. M. Dannenberg, Jr., N. Parrish, R. Ruiz, P. Chen, B. C. Zook, W. Johnson, J. W. Boles, and M. L. Pitt. 1999. Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1551 and H37Rv in rabbits evaluated by Lurie's pulmonary tubercle count method. Infect Immun 67:4931-4.
106. Bishai, W.R., and R. E. Chaisson. 1999. Opportunistic infections: down but not out. Hopkins HIV Rep 11:2, 7, 12.
107. Parrish, N. M., J. D. Dick, and W.R. Bishai. 1998. Mechanisms of latency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Trends Microbiol 6:107-12.
108. Chen, P., and W.R. Bishai. 1998. Novel selection for isoniazid (INH) resistance genes supports a role for NAD+-binding proteins in mycobacterial INH resistance. Infect Immun 66:5099-106.
109. Chaisson, R. E., and W. Bishai. 1998. No news is good news: opportunistic infections. Hopkins HIV Rep 10:2, 11.
110. Calamita, G., B. Kempf, M. Bonhivers, W.R. Bishai, E. Bremer, and P. Agre. 1998. Regulation of the Escherichia coli water channel gene aqpZ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:3627-31.
111. Bishai, W.R., N. M. Graham, S. Harrington, D. S. Pope, N. Hooper, J. Astemborski, L. Sheely, D. Vlahov, G. E. Glass, and R. E. Chaisson. 1998. Molecular and geographic patterns of tuberculosis transmission after 15 years of directly observed therapy. Jama 280:1679-84.
112. Bishai, W. 1998. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomic sequence: anatomy of a master adaptor. Trends Microbiol 6:464-5.
113. Michele, T. M., W. A. Cronin, N. M. Graham, D. M. Dwyer, D. S. Pope, S. Harrington, R. E. Chaisson, and W.R. Bishai. 1997. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Identification by DNA fingerprinting. Jama 278:1093-5.
114. Gomez, J. E., J. M. Chen, and W.R. Bishai. 1997. Sigma factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuber Lung Dis 78:175-83.
115. DeMaio, J., Y. Zhang, C. Ko, and W.R. Bishai. 1997. Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigF is part of a gene cluster with similarities to the Bacillus subtilis sigF and sigB operons. Tuber Lung Dis 78:3-12.
116. Calamita, G., B. Kempf, K. E. Rudd, M. Bonhivers, S. Kneip, W.R. Bishai, E. Bremer, and P. Agre. 1997. The aquaporin-Z water channel gene of Escherichia coli: structure, organization and phylogeny. Biol Cell 89:321-9.
117. Bishai, W.R., and R. E. Chaisson. 1997. Short-course chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis. Clin Chest Med 18:115-22.
118. Jacobs, W., P. Brennan, G. Curlin, A. Ginsberg, M. Adams, R. Fleischmann, C. Fraser, J. C. Venter, T. Shinnick, W. Bishai, H. Smith, K. Stover, and G. Hatfull. 1996. Comparative sequencing. Science 274:17-8.
119. DeMaio, J., Y. Zhang, C. Ko, D. B. Young, and W.R. Bishai. 1996. A stationary-phase stress-response sigma factor from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:2790-4.
120. Bishai, W.R., N. M. Graham, S. Harrington, C. Page, K. Moore-Rice, N. Hooper, and R. E. Chaisson. 1996. Brief report: rifampin-resistant tuberculosis in a patient receiving rifabutin prophylaxis. N Engl J Med 334:1573-6.
121. Howard, N. S., J. E. Gomez, C. Ko, and W.R. Bishai. 1995. Color selection with a hygromycin-resistance-based Escherichia coli-mycobacterial shuttle vector. Gene 166:181-2.
122. Calamita, G., W.R. Bishai, G. M. Preston, W. B. Guggino, and P. Agre. 1995. Molecular cloning and characterization of AqpZ, a water channel from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 270:29063-6.
123. Bishai, W.R., H. O. Smith, and G. J. Barcak. 1994. A peroxide/ascorbate-inducible catalase from Haemophilus influenzae is homologous to the Escherichia coli katE gene product. J Bacteriol 176:2914-21.
124. Bishai, W.R., N. S. Howard, J. A. Winkelstein, and H. O. Smith. 1994. Characterization and virulence analysis of catalase mutants of Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun 62:4855-60.
125. Cha, J., W. Bishai, and S. Chandrasegaran. 1993. New vectors for direct cloning of PCR products. Gene 136:369-70.
126. Bishai, W.R., and C. L. Sears. 1993. Food poisoning syndromes. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 22:579-608.
127. Murphy, J. R., D. P. Williams, P. Bacha, W. Bishai, C. Waters, and T. B. Strom. 1988. Cell receptor specific targeted toxins: genetic construction and characterization of an interleukin 2 diphtheria toxin-related fusion protein. J Recept Res 8:467-80.
128. Williams, D. P., K. Parker, P. Bacha, W. Bishai, M. Borowski, F. Genbauffe, T. B. Strom, and J. R. Murphy. 1987. Diphtheria toxin receptor binding domain substitution with interleukin-2: genetic construction and properties of a diphtheria toxin-related interleukin-2 fusion protein. Protein Eng 1:493-8.
129. Murphy, J. R., W. Bishai, D. Williams, P. Bacha, M. Borowski, K. Parker, J. Boyd, C. Waters, and T. B. Strom. 1987. Genetic assembly and selective toxicity of diphtheria-toxin-related polypeptide hormone fusion proteins. Biochem Soc Symp 53:9-23.
130. Bishai, W.R., R. Rappuoli, and J. R. Murphy. 1987. High-level expression of a proteolytically sensitive diphtheria toxin fragment in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 169:5140-51.
131. Bishai, W.R., A. Miyanohara, and J. R. Murphy. 1987. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of three fragments of diphtheria toxin truncated within fragment B. J Bacteriol 169:1554-63.
132. Murphy, J. R., W. Bishai, M. Borowski, A. Miyanohara, J. Boyd, and S. Nagle. 1986. Genetic construction, expression, and melanoma-selective cytotoxicity of a diphtheria toxin-related alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone fusion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:8258-62.