El-Maghraby Professor of Preventive Ophthalmology
Ph.D in Epidemiology: Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health
Pharm. D. University of California Medical Center at San Francisco
A longtime interest in research on blinding trachoma has lead to clinical trials in Tanzania, Ethiopia and Niger. In collaboration with the World Health Organization, we investigate the use of antibiotics, surgery and improved facial hygiene as keys to combating the blinding disease. Current research is focused on risk factors for recurrent trichiasis, and effect of multiple yearly mass treatment rounds on active trachoma and infection.
As the leading cause of blindness across the globe, cataract is a major aspect of our research. Variations of cataract rates among different populations have spurred studies in Caucasian, African-America, African and Latino groups. We have connected sunlight exposure, smoking and mortality to cataract and are currently investigating surgical health disparities.
Projects in Arizona and Baltimore identify risk factors for diabetes and diabetic eye disease, and health education approaches to avoid the devastating effects diabetic retinopathy.
Vision and Function: Older Drivers
Older drivers are at high risk of crashes, and death from crashes, yet driving is a key to independent living. In an effort to improve driving safety for as long as possible, we are investigating how vision and cognition in older individuals affect driving behaviors. An innovative driving monitoring system is now in use in Salisbury, Maryland as part of a longitudinal study of older drivers. Previous work has documented the impact of vision on multiple measures of function.
Swenor BK, Bressler S, Caulfield L, West SK. The impact of fish and shellfish consumption on age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. ePub ahead of print
West SK, Hahn DV, Baldwin KC, Duncan DD, Munoz BE, Turano KA, Hassan SE, Munro CA, Bandeen-Roche K. Older drivers and failure to stop at red lights. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:179-83.
Abbas M, Bobo LD, Hsieh YH, Berka N, Dunston G, Bonney G, Apprey V, Quinn TC, West SK. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allotypes associated with disease and protection in trachoma endemic villages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1734-1738.
Wolle M, Munoz B, Mkocha H, West SK. Age, sex, and cohort effects in a longitudinal study of trachomatous scarring. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:592-596.
Wolle MA, Munoz BE, Mkocha H, West SK. Constant ocular infection with c. trachomatis predicts risk of scarring in children in Tanzania. Ophthalmology 2009;116:243-247
Woreta T, Munoz B, Gower E, Alemayehu W, West SK. The impact of trichiasis surgery on visual acuity outcomes in Ethiopia. Accepted Archives of Ophthalmology 5/5/08 MS#OPH08-0439.
Keay L, Munoz B, Turano KA, Hassan SE, Munro C, Duncan DD, Baldwin KC, Jasti S, Gower EW, West SK. Visual and cognitive deficits predict stopping or restricting driving: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study (SEEDS). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:107-113.
Keay L, Jasti S, Munoz B, Turano KA, Munro CA, Duncan DD, Baldwin K, Bandeen-Roche KJ, Gower EW, West SK. Urban and rural difference in older drivers’ failure to stop at stop signs. Accid. Anal. Accid. 2009;41:995-1000.
Aucott J, Morrison C, Munoz B, Rowe PC, Schwarzwalder A, West SK. Diagnostic challenges of early Lyme disease: lessons from a community case series. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:79. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-79
Ramulu PY, West SK, Munoz B, Jampel HD, Friedman DS. Glaucoma and reading speed: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation project. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:82-87.
Turano KA, Munoz B, Hassan SE, Duncan DD, Gower EW, Roche KB, Keay L, Munro CA, West SK. Poor sense of direction is associated with constricted driving space in older drivers. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009;64:348-355.
Cross JM, McGwin G Jr, Rubin GS, Ball KK, West SK, Roenker DL, Owsley C. Visual and medical risk factors for motor vehicle collision involvement among older drivers. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:400-404.
Campbell JP, Mkocha H, Munoz B, West SK. Randomized trial of high dose azithromycin compared to standard dosing for children with severe trachoma in Tanzania. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009;16:175-180.
Ramulu PY, West SK, Munoz B, Jampel HD, Friedman DS. Driving cessation and driving limitation in glaucoma: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation project. Ophthalmology 2009;116:1846-1853.
Patel I and West SK. Gender differences in presbyopia. Comm Eye Hlth J. 2009;22:27.
Mkocha H, Munoz B, West SK. Trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis rates in children in trachoma-endemic communities enrolled for at least three years in the Tanzania National Trachoma Control Programme. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2009;11:103-110.
Woreta TA, Munoz BE, Gower EW, Alemayehu W, West SK. Effect of trichiasis surgery on visual acuity outcome in Ethiopia. Arch Ophthalmology 2009;127:1505-1510.
Freeman EE, Gange SJ, Munoz B, West SK. Driving status and risk of entry into long-term care in older adults. Am J Public Health 2006;96:1254-1259.
West SK, West ES, Alemayehu W, Melese M, Munoz B, Imeru A, Worku A, Gaydos C, Meinert CL, Quinn T. Single-dose Azithromycin prevents trichiasis recurrence following surgery: Randomized trial in Ethiopia. Arch Ophthalmol 2006;124:309-314.
Friedman DS, Munoz B, Roche KB, Massof R, Broman A, West SK. Poor uptake of cataract surgery in nursing home residents: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation in Nursing Home Groups study. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:1581-7.
Munoz B, Klein R, Rodriguez, Snyder R, West SK. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in a population-based sample of Hispanic people in Arizona: Proyecto VER. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:1575-1580.
Freeman EE, Munoz B, Turano KA, West SK. Measures of visual function and time to driving cessation in older adults. Optom Vis Sci 2005;82:765-773.
West SK, Longstreth JD, Munoz B, Pitcher HM, Duncan DD. Model of risk of cortical cataract in the US population with exposure to increased ultraviolet radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:1-9.
West SK, Munoz B, Mkocha H, Holland MJ, Solomon AW, Foster A, Bailey RL, Mabey DCW. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis after mass treatment of a trachoma hyperendemic community in Tanzania: a longitudinal study. Lancet 2005;366:1296-1300.
West SK, Munoz B, Rubin GS, Bandeen-Roche K, Broman AT, Turano KA. Compensatory strategy use identified risk of incident disability for the visually impaired. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:1242-1247.
Broman AT, Hafiz G, Munoz B, Rodriguez J, Snyder R, Klein R, West SK. Cataract and barriers to cataract surgery in a US Hispanic population. Proyecto VER. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:1231-1236.
West SK, Muñoz B, Klein R, Broman AT, Sanchez R, Rodriguez J, Snyder R. Risk factors for type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican-American population: Proyecto VER. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:390-8.