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Anand Raj Kumar, M.D.

Photo of Dr. Anand Raj Kumar, M.D.

Director, Center for Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery

Associate Professor of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Specializes in: Children (1-11 years), Infants (up to 1 year), Adolescents (12-18 years)


Expertise: Bell's Palsy, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Complex Skull Reconstruction, Cranial Nerve Palsies, Craniofacial Injuries, Craniofacial Reconstruction, Craniofacial Surgery, Cranioplasty, Cutaneous Surgery, Dermatologic Surgery, Ear Surgery, Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery, Facial Fracture Reconstruction, Facial Lesions, Facial Nerve Disorders, Facial Paralysis, Facial Reanimation, Facial Scar Revision, Facial Surgery, Facial Trauma, Facial Trauma Reconstructive Surgery, Flaps, Jaw Dislocation or Fracture, Nasal Reconstruction, Ocular Plastics, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pediatric Brachial Plexus, Pediatric Craniofacial Disorders, Pediatric Facial Trauma, Perinatal Brachial Plexus Injury, Pierre Robin Syndrome, Plastic Surgery, Polydactyly (extra fingers), Reconstruction After Cancer, Reconstructive Jaw Surgery, Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Reconstructive Surgery, Scars, Skin Lesions , Skull Base Surgery, Skull Lesions more

Research Interests: Cranial bone regeneration using regenerative therapies; Muscle-dervied ossification conditions; Heterotopic ossification in combat-related injuries; Bone and muscle regeneration using muscle derived stem/progenitor cells; Evaluating cranial bone regeneration in adults and children more

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Johns Hopkins Pediatrics
Appointment Phone: 443-997-9466

200 N. Wolfe Street
Rubenstein Child Health Building
Baltimore, MD 21287 map
Phone: 410-955-9475
Fax: 410-955-7060

Johns Hopkins Medicine - Green Spring Station
Appointment Phone: 443-997-9466

2360 W. Joppa Road
Faculty Pavilion 1
Lutherville, MD 21093 map
Phone: 410-955-9475
Fax: 410-955-7060


Dr. Anand Kumar is an associate professor of plastic and reconstructive surgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. A pediatric plastic and craniofacial surgeon and basic science researcher, he conducts investigation into the cellular biology of muscle-derived progenitor cells as a source of pathologic heterotopic ossification and for novel regenerative medicine applications.

His clinical practice focuses on craniofacial surgery including craniosynostosis (Apert/Crouzon Syndrome), correction of hypertelorism (wide eyes), pediatric and adolescent facial skeletal deformities (Pierre Robin Sequence) with airway obstruction using traditional orthognathic (jaw) surgery and distraction osteogenesis.

Dr. Kumar leads the craniobiology research team with a keen interest in muscle derived progenitor cell biology. Using in vitro, organotypic and in vivo murine bone defect models, his team studies cell migration, cell survival and fate tracking and osteogenic differentiation using fluorescent protein expressing cells, confocal cell imaging technology, and hypothesis neutral RNA-seq studies. The craniobiology research team is poised to unlock the osteogenic potential of these unique cells to heal critical bone defects of the craniofacial skeleton. His team's novel study has been recognized and supported by the Plastic Surgery Research Foundation, the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons and the Johns Hopkins Military & Veterans Institute.

As an honor student in the biological sciences at the University of California, Irvine, Dr. Kumar received his medical degree from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He completed his general surgery residency at the Mayo Clinic Rochester and later completed a second residency in plastic and reconstructive surgery at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He subsequently completed a pediatric plastic/craniofacial surgery fellowship after his residency at UCLA.

In 2004, prior to his academic appointment, Dr. Kumar volunteered for military service and joined the United States Navy until 2010. In Bethesda, Maryland, he served as director and staff pediatric plastic surgeon of the Military Craniofacial Unit at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. He served as division chief in plastic and reconstructive surgery at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda and on board the United States Naval Support Hospital Ship Comfort. In 2010, Dr. Kumar was recruited to the University of Pittsburgh as the director of facial skeletal surgery until 2013 when he was recruited to Johns Hopkins to lead the Center for Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery. more


  • Director, Center for Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery
  • Director, The Johns Hopkins Craniofacial Fellowship
  • Associate Professor of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics

Centers & Institutes



  • MD, Yeshiva University Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1997)


  • Mayo Medical School College of Medicine / Surgery (2002)
  • UCLA Medical Center David Geffen School of Medicine / Plastic Surgery (2004)


  • UCLA Medical Center David Geffen School of Medicine / Craniofacial Surgery (2008)

Board Certifications

  • American Board of Surgery / General Surgery (2003, 2013)
  • American Board of Surgery / Plastic Surgery (2005, 2025)

Research & Publications

Research Summary

The focus of Dr. Kumar’s research includes evaluating cranial bone and muscle regeneration by harnessing muscle-derived ossification conditions. In addition, grants from the Plastic Surgery Research Foundation and the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons have allowed him to study heterotopic ossification in combat-related injuries and the use of harvested cells to regenerate muscle or bone in patients.


Dr. Kumar leads the Craniofacial Bone Biology Laboratory at the Ross Research Building of The Johns Hopkins Univerisity. Our team is dedicated to the development of novel treatment of pathologic heterotopic bone formation and harnessing its osteogenic potential for structural bone regeneration in critical sized cranial defect models. We study muscle derived progenitor cell in both human, murine and rabbit in vitro models and in vivo murine and rabbit models. The role of bone morphogenetic proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical-transduction forces are central to our investigative methods.


Core Facility: Survival - Ross

Technology Expertise Keywords

RNA-seq, rtPCR, Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescent Microscopy

Selected Publications

View all on Pubmed

Rotgers, SA, Meszaros, LB, Kumar, AR. TGFβ1 is a Potent Inhibitor of BMP2 Mediated Osteogenic Differentiation in a Primary Murine Muscle Cell in vitro Model of Heterotopic Ossification. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. March 2014; Volume 133 - Issue 3S, p90.

Lee, Tiffany Y. BA; Meszaros, Laura B. PhD; Tobita, Kimimasa MD, PhD; Kumar, Anand R. MD. 3D Constructs of Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Cells as a Model of Bone Formation: Osteogenic Differentiation in Response to BMP2. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. October 2013; Vol. 132 No. 4S-1, p147-148

Denver M. Lough, MD, PhD, Christopher Madsen, MD, Edward Swanson, MD, Devin Miller, BS, Gerald Brandacher, MD, Anand Kumar, MD. Utilization of Muscle Derived Stem Cells in Combination with hBMP-2 Seeded Scaffolding Augments Proliferation, Migration and Osteogenic Induction: A Novel Method for the Repair of Critically Sized Bone Defects. Plastic Surgery Research Council 60th Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: May 2015 - Volume 135 - Issue 5S - p 131–132

Rotgers, SA, Meszaros, LB, Kumar, AR. Differential Effects of Inflammatory Mediators TNFα, TGFβ1 on Cellular Differentiation in a Primary Murine Muscle Cell in vitro Model of Heterotopic Ossification. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. March 2014; Volume 133 - Issue 3S, p67.

Activities & Honors


  • Humanitarian Service Medal , Joint Task Force Haiti Earthquake Relief Mission
  • Meritorious Service Medal in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom
  • Navy/Marine Corp Achievement Medal 
  • Navy/Marine Corp Commendation Medal
  • Surface Warfare Qualification (SWMDO)                 
  • Armed Forces Service Medal                  
  • Meritorious Service Medal
  • Navy Unit Commendation
  • National Defense Service Medal
  • Global War on Terrorism Service Medal     
  • Meritorious Unit Commendation
  • Alpha Omega Alpha          
  • Top Docs 2014:, Baltimore magazine, 2014


  • Alpha Omega Alpha, Honor Medical Society
  • American Academy of Pediatrics (FAAP)
  • American Association of Pediatric Plastic Surgeons (AAPPS)
  • American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA)
  • American College of Surgeons (FACS)
  • American Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ASCFS)
  • American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons (ASMS)
  • American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS)                                                          
  • Northeast Society of Plastic Surgeons
  • Pediatric Trauma Society (PTS)
  • Plastic Surgery Research Council (PSRC)
  • Priestly Surgical Society, Mayo Clinic Surgery

Videos & Media

Recent News Articles and Media Coverage

Top Docs 2014: Challenging Case Files,”Baltimore Magazine, November 1, 2014

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