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Gyusung Lee, M.S., Ph.D.

Photo of Dr. Gyusung Lee, M.S., Ph.D.

Director, MIS & Robotic Education and Ergonomics Research

Instructor of Surgery

Research Interests: MIS and Robotic Surgery Training and Education, Surgical Ergonomics, Human Factors, Biomechanics, Motor Control and Neuroscience, Perioperative Environment more


Dr. Gyusung Lee obtained a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from Texas A&M University with his dissertation research in the biomechanical mechanism of secondary injury and became a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Kinesiology at Arizona State University. In a series of studies, he investigated the upper extremity control strategies employed by three discrete groups of subjects (young, elderly and Parkinson's patients).

After Dr. Lee's postdoctoral training, he joined the Department of Surgery at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. At the rank of Assistant Professor, he served as Director of Surgical Ergonomics and Human Factors Research Program in the Maryland Advanced Simulation, Training, Research and Innovation (MASTRI) Center. Using biomechanical measurement systems, e.g. motion analysis, force plates, and electromyography (EMG), he identified ergonomic risk factors associated with the performance of laparoscopy and propose solutions for minimizing the ergonomic risks that laparoscopic surgeons encounter. Additionally Dr. Lee studied the characteristic patterns of upper-body movement and postural balance control exhibited by expert MIS surgeons. His work also entailed evaluating the ergonomic efficacy of new technologies used in MIS, and with training components including models, tasks, and stations.

Recently, Dr. Lee joined Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine as a Faculty Instructor in the Department of Surgery and the Director of MIS and Robotic Training and Ergonomics Research in the Minimally Invasive Surgical Training and Innovation Center (MISTIC). He is responsible for new robotic surgery training program for residents, fellows, staffs, and teams at Hopkins and will continue his efforts with the education and ergonomics research program in minimally invasive surgery through collaboration with his research partners. more


  • Director, MIS & Robotic Education and Ergonomics Research
  • Instructor of Surgery

Departments / Divisions



  • B.S., Yonsei University (South Korea) (1993)
  • M.S., Texas A&M University (Texas) (1996)
  • Ph.D., Texas A&M University (Texas) (2002)

Research & Publications

Research Summary

For the last four-and-a-half years, Dr. Lee has been the director of MIS and robotic education and ergonomics research at the MISTIC in the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (JHSOM). One of his primary responsibilities in MISTIC was to develop the comprehensive robotic surgery training curriculum. This program provides surgical trainees with basic robotic skill training in preparation for the Fundamentals of Robotic Surgery (FRS), and advanced skill training for the immediate application of the learned skills in the trainees' actual case involvement. Developing this curriculum involved 1) creating multi-step, inanimate training models, 2) establishing thorough performance evaluation metrics for objective and quantitative skill learning monitoring, and 3) providing one-on-one coaching for mentored skill learning with individualized learning plans. Using this curriculum, he offered robotic training to Hopkins residents, fellows and attending surgeons, from general surgery, gynecology, surgical oncology, urology and cardiac surgery. In addition, he also created a didactic and hands-on training program for OR staff members assisting robotic surgery cases. Through this program, Hopkins OR staff members receive skills training on a regular basis for establishing better team work between surgeons and OR staff members. 

To enhance traditional MIS training, he recently developed advanced a laparoscopic/endoscopic suturing training curriculum to help residents, who already passed the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS), official laparoscopic skill training and assessment protocol, to obtain more advanced and practical suturing skills for use in the OR. Additionally, physical training models for the Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) education were developed for resident training in general surgery to respond to the recent requirement by American Board of Surgery (ABS).

Dr. Lee's current primary research focuses on developing innovative educational methodologies, by bringing technologies into current surgical training to further improve its effectiveness and efficiency. He submitted several intra- and extra-mural funding applications for research projects to develop computer-based video training and error-specific feedback mentoring systems for laparoscopy and robotic minimally invasive surgery training. Ultimately, this mentoring system will be applicable not only to minimally invasive surgeries, but to other surgical/medical trainings as well. Recently, too, he completed research investigating the practical influence of performance metrics from the robotic virtual reality simulator on skill learning and the associated cognitive workload. This project was supported by Association of Surgical Education (ASE), as the single awardee of its 2014 ASE CESERT research grant program, and by Intuitive Surgical, Inc., through its clinical research grant program in 2013. This research work was presented as a podium presentation at 2015 Clinical Congress, Chicago, IL.

Selected Publications

View all on Pubmed

Lee G, Sutton E, Yassar Y, Clanton T, Park A (2011) Higher physical workload risks with NOTES versus laparoscopy: a quantitative ergonomic assessment, Surg Endosc. 25(5): 1585-1593.

Zheng B, Reider E, Cassera M, Martinec D, Lee G, Panton ONM, Park A, Swanstrom L (2011)Quantifying mental workloads of surgeons in performing NOTES procedures, Surg Endosc. (Epub ahead of print)

Sublette M, Carswell CM, Seidelman W,Grant R, Han Q, Field M, Lio CH, Lee G, Seales WB, Clarke D (2011) Do operators take advantage of a secondary, global‐perspective display when performing a simulated laparoscopic search task? Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society annual conference, (accepted for publication)

Sublette M. Carswell M. Han Q. Grant R. Lio H. Lee G, Field M. Staley D. Seales B. Clarke D (2010) Dual-view displays for minimally invasive surgery: Does the addition of a 3-D global wiew decrease mental workload? Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society annual conference, 53(18): 1581-1585.

Lio H, Carswell M, Han Q, Park A, Strup S, Seales B, Clarke D, Lee G, Hoskins J (2009) Using formal qualitative methods to guide early development of an augmented reality display system for surgery, Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society annual conference, 53(18): 1181-1185.


• An Endoscopic Surgical Device for the Measurement of Hernia Defects and Other Anatomic Geometries for Clinical Planning by Direct Contact
Patent # 0035507 A1

•Inventors: Gyusung Lee, Ivan George, Adrian Park

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•Application number: 13/136,086

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•Publication number: 2012/0035507 A1

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•Filed: July 22, 2011

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•Status: Pending 

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Academic Affiliations & Courses

Courses and Syllabi

  • Development of endoscopic surgery training curriculum
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  • Development of advanced endoscopic suturing training curriculum
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  • Robotic surgical skill training for the residents and fellows in general surgery, gynecology, surgical oncology, and otolaryngology
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  • Development of Johns Hopkins-MISTIC Robotic surgery training curriculum
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Activities & Honors


  • Research and Training (CESERT) Research Award, Association for Surgical Education (ASE) Center for Excellence in Surgical Education, 2014 - 2015
  • Intuitive Surgical Clinical Research Grant, 2013 - 2014
  • Intuitive Surgical Clinical Research Grant, 2012 - 2013


  • American Society of Biomechanics, 2016
  • Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society, 2016
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2016
  • International Society of Biomechanics, 2016
  • Society for Neuroscience, 2016
  • Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, 2016
  • Association of Surgical Education, 2016
  • Society of Robotic Surgery, 2016
  • American College of Surgeons, 2016

Professional Activities

  • Postdoctoral Research Associate
    Motor Control
  • Faculty Research Associate, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland
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