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Pravin Kumar Rao, M.D.

Photo of Dr. Pravin Kumar Rao, M.D.

Director, Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute

Assistant Professor of Urology


Expertise: Bladder Stones, Erectile Dysfunction, Hydronephrosis, Inflatable Penile Prosthesis, Kidney Cancer, Kidney Stones, Male Factor Infertility, Male Infertility, Male Reproductive Health, Microdenervation of Spermatic Cord , Microdissection/Microsurgical Testicular Sperm Extraction, Microsurgical Vasectomy Reversal, Sperm Retrieval, Testicular Cancer, Testicular Sperm Extraction, Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction, Urethral Cancer, Urology, Varicocele, Vasectomy (Non-Scalpel), Vasectomy Reversal more

Research Interests: Male infertility and Public Health; Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY Male); Transposons as a Cause of Infertility; Noninvasive Vasectomy more


Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Appointment Phone: 443-997-1849

301 Mason Lord Drive
Baltimore, MD 21224 map
Phone: 410-550-0403
Fax: 410-550-3341

Johns Hopkins Medicine - Green Spring Station
Appointment Phone: 410-955-6100

Green Spring Station
10755 Falls Road
Pavilion I Suite 460
Lutherville, MD 21093 map
Phone: 410-550-3338
Fax: 410-550-3341


Dr. Pravin Rao is an assistant professor of urology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Dr. Rao serves as the director of reproductive medicine and surgery at the Brady Urological Institute.

Dr. Rao's clinical practice focuses on male infertility and andrology, kidney cancer and renal obstruction. His main areas of expertise involve microsurgery using an operative microscope, which has been shown to yield superior outcomes in reproductive operations such as vasectomy reversal and sperm retrieval. He also has expertise in open and minimally invasive surgery (including endoscopic, laparoscopic and robotic) for treatment of cancer, urinary tract stones and benign diseases of the urinary tract. These include laparoscopic robotic assisted partial nephrectomy for cancer and robotic pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction, as well as ureteroscopic and percutaneous treatments for renal stones.

Dr. Rao obtained his medical degree at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He completed his general surgery internship, urology residency and urology chief residency at the Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. He then went on to the University of Illinois, Chicago, for fellowship training in male infertility and andrology, concentrating on medical and surgical care for infertile patients.

His primary research interests include the characterization and management of the close relationships between male infertility and multiple medical conditions including testicular cancer, prostate cancer, diabetes, heart disease and hypogonadism. Educating patients and influencing public health policy about these concerns are among his top priorities.

Dr. Rao is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Urological Association and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. more


  • Director, Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute
  • Assistant Professor of Urology

Departments / Divisions



  • B.S., Tulane University (Louisiana) (2000)
  • M.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Maryland) (2004)

Research & Publications

Research Summary

Dr. Rao’s research focuses on noninvasive vasectomy; transposons as a cause of infertility; Klinefelter syndrome; male infertility and public health; and the characterization and management of the close relationships between male infertility and multiple medical conditions including testicular cancer, prostate cancer, diabetes, heart disease and hypogonadism.

Noninvasive vasectomy: Using laser technology that can treat tissues underneath the skin, preliminary studies of have been promising in their ability occlude the vas deferens without an incision or puncture. Dr. Rao is collaborating in studies to bring this closer to reality for men considering vasectomy.

Transposons as a cause of infertility: Transposons are small segments of genetic information that can replicate within an organisms DNA. Overexpression of transposons have been shown to disrupt DNA information and cause infertility in animal models. Dr. Rao is collaborating in a study to determine whether this could the cause of infertility in a subset of infertile human patients.

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY Male): As co-founder of the Johns Hopkins Klinefelter Syndrome Center, Dr. Rao is working to better understand male infertility and hypogonadism in this important group of men, develop evidence-based treatment guidelines and investigate new treatment options.

Male infertility and public health: Increasing evidence continues to link male infertility to various malignancies and other medical conditions later in life. Dr. Rao is working with colleagues at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help characterize these relationships, demonstrate their effect on men’s health, examine their impact on the health system and develop recommendations for preventive care in infertile men.

Selected Publications

Rao P, Gao T, Pohl M, Jones J. "Dipstick pseudohematuria: unnecessary consultation and evaluation." J Urol. 2010 Feb;183(2):560-4.

Rao P, Palmer J. "Prenatal and postnatal management of hydronephrosis." Scientific World Journal. 2009 Jul 13;9:606-14.

Rao P, Jones J. "Routine Perioperative Chemotherapy Instillation with Initial Transurethral Resection: A Reconsideration of Economic Benefits." Cancer. 2009 Mar 1;115(5):997- 1004.

Rao P, Iverson A, Cespedes R, Sabanegh E. "Augmentation Cystoplasty," eMedicine website: 2008 Mar 11:

Rao P, Jones J. "How to Evaluate 'Dipstick Hematuria': What to do Before You Refer." Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2008 Mar; 75(3): 227-233.

Rao P, Jones JS. "Screening for Bladder Cancer in Primary Care: A Comprehensive Review," Medscape website: 2008 Jan 25:

Wang X, Yin L, Rao P, Stein R, Harsch K, Heston W. "Targeted treatment of prostate cancer" J Cell Biochem. 2007 Oct 15;102(3):571-9.

Varkarakis I, Rais-Bahrami S, Allaf M, Lima G, Permpongkosol S, Rao P, Jarrett T, Kavoussi LR. "Laparoscopic renal-adrenal surgery in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy." J. Urol. 2005 Sep;174(3):1020-3.

Bhayani S, Allaf M, Link R, Rao P, Varkarakis J, Jarrett T, Kavoussi L. "Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in patients with neoplasia in a solitary kidney." Urology. 2004 Jul;64(1):35-7

Zawada W, Meintzer M, Rao P, Marotti J, Wang X, Esplen J, Clarkson E, Freed C, Heidenreich K. "Inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase increase the survival of transplanted dopamine neurons." Brain Research. 891; 185-196:2001

Kummer J, Rao P, Heidenreich K. "p38 MAP Kinase Mediates Apoptosis Induced by Trophic Factor Withdrawal." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271:20490-20494, 1997.

Activities & Honors


  • American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2010
  • American Urological Association, 2004
  • Society for Male Reproduction and Urology, 2010
  • Society for the Study of Male Reproduction, 2010
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