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Photo of Dr. Leisha Emens

Leisha Ann Emens, MD

Member, Tumor Immunology Research Program
Associate Professor of Oncology
Female
Appointment Phone

410-955-8964

Main Location

Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center

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Titles

  • Member, Tumor Immunology Research Program
  • Member, Breast Cancer Research Program
  • Associate Professor of Oncology

Centers & Institutes

  • Avon Foundation Breast Center
  • Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center

Expertise

Breast Cancer, Medical Oncology

Research Interests

Breast cancer; Immunotherapy; Vaccines

Biography

Associate Professor of Oncology
Member, Tumor Immunology Research Program
Member, Breast Cancer Research Program

One of Leisha Emens’ patients has dubbed her a rock star of the oncology world. It’s not a far-fetched analogy. Like a rock star, Emens has a group of loyal devotees; hers just happen to be women with breast cancer. By being a part of experimental clinical trials to test the therapeutic breast cancer vaccine that Emens first created almost fifteen years ago during her fellowship at Johns Hopkins, these patients have come to appreciate her risk-taking nature, intense drive and singular ambition to bring the vaccine and other new, cutting edge immune-based therapies from bench to bedside.

“I’ve dedicated my career to finding ways to harness the immune system to fight cancer,” Emens says. She believes immunotherapy one day will revolutionize cancer care and, ultimately, prevention. But she also acknowledges the enormous challenges to making this happen.

The job that Emens is trying to get her breast cancer vaccine to do is inherently different, and more difficult, than the way a preventive vaccine works. Vaccines that prevent infectious diseases target foreign bodies. But because cancer arises from one’s own body, the immune system doesn’t recognize it as an invader; therefore, it doesn’t become activated to destroy the cancer as easily. What’s more, as the cancer spreads, the immune system learns to tolerate it.

“What we’re trying to do with therapeutic cancer vaccines and other immune-based cancer treatments is to develop ways to eliminate those pathways of tolerance and peel back those layers of regulation that keep the immune response to tumors shut off,” Emens explains.

Emens predicts that, in five years, the dramatic revolution in cancer immunotherapy will enter the clinic in force. She doesn’t attribute this pending success to her own incredible drive, but rather that which pervades Johns Hopkins. “It’s a great place to translate the science. Here, it’s a priority to get things from the lab to the clinic,” she says.

Languages

  • English

Memberships

American Society for Clinical Oncology

American Association for Cancer Research

International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer

American College of Physicians

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

Clinical Trial Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Vaccine

Additional Resources

Additional Resources +
  • Education +

    Training

    • Baylor College of Medicine ( Houston TX ) (1995)

    Residencies

    • University of Texas/Internal Medicine ( Austin TX ) (1998)

    Fellowships

    • National Cancer Institute ( Bethesda MD ) (1993)
    • The Johns Hopkins Hospital/Oncology ( Baltimore MD ) (2001)

    Certifications

    • Medical Oncology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2011)
    • Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (2008)
  • Research & Publications +

    Selected Publications

    Research Summary

    Dr. Emens tests active vaccination strategies for breast cancer treatment that are optimally integrated with traditional anticancer therapies and newer biologically targeted therapies in additive or synergistic ways. She developed a genetically-modified, cell-based vaccine for breast cancer that secretes the immune-stimulating hormone granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and expresses HER-2. She first tested the vaccine in combination with low doses of Cyclophosphamide (CY) and Doxorubicin (DOX) in patients with Stage 4 breast cancer. In a mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer where the vaccine does not work, adding CY and DOX cures about 30% of tumor-bearing mice. This chemotherapy effect is largely due to the ability of CY to turn off a special type of immune cell (regulatory T cell) that keeps immune responses shut down. Analysis of patient samples on this trial demonstrated that the vaccine alone is active in inducing HER-2-specific T cell responses, but HER-2-specific antibody levels remain low. CY 200 mg/m2 and DOX 35 mg/m2 augmented HER-2-specific antibody responses compared to vaccine alone, but doses of CY higher than 200 mg/m2 inhibited the vaccine. Dr. Emens and her team are now actively analyzing the sera of HER-2 responders to identify novel targets of the vaccine-induced immune response for further study. She has also investigated the addition of monoclonal antibodies that target either the tumor itself (HER-2), or the tumor microenvironment (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) to chemotherapy-modulated vaccination. Both add further to the antitumor effect of the vaccine. In particular, HER-2-specific monoclonal antibodies augment antigen processing and presentation, results in higher numbers of CD8+ T cells after chemotherapy-modulated vaccination in the presence of the antibody. Accordingly, Dr. Emens has launched three clinical trials testing the HER-2-specific monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab in combination with CY-modulated vaccination, two in patients with HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer, and one in patients with breast cancer that does not over-express HER-2. Finally, Dr. Emens is exploring modulating distinct aspects of the tumor microenvironment with novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors and novel molecular therapeutics. The overall goal of Dr. Emens research is to elucidate mechanisms of immunoregulation in patients with breast cancer using the vaccine in combination with standard breast cancer drugs and novel therapeutics. These studies should identify novel drug targets and new therapies to improve breast cancer outcomes.

    Journal Citations

    Emens, L.A. Roadmap to a better therapeutic tumor vaccine. International reviews of immunology. 2006 Sep-Dec;25(5):415-443.

    Emens, L.A. Cancer vaccines: toward the next revolution in cancer therapy. International reviews of immunology. 2006 Sep-Dec;25(5):259-268.

    Murata, S.; Ladle, B.H.; Kim, P.S.; Lutz, E.R.; Wolpoe, M.E.; Ivie, S.E.; Smith, H.M.; Armstrong, T.D.; Emens, L.A.; Jaffee, E.M.; Reilly, R.T. OX40 costimulation synergizes with GM-CSF whole-cell vaccination to overcome established CD8+ T cell tolerance to an endogenous tumor antigen. J Immunol. 2006 Jan 15;176(2):974-983.

    Manning, E.A.; Ullman, J.G.; Leatherman, J.M.; Asquith, J.M.; Hansen, T.R.; Armstrong, T.D.; Hicklin, D.J.; Jaffee, E.M.; Emens, L.A. A vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 inhibitor enhances antitumor immunity through an immune-based mechanism. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 1;13(13):3951-3959.

    Emens, L.A. Chemotherapy and tumor immunity: an unexpected collaboration. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan. 1;13:249-257.

    Emens, L.A. Jump-Starting Tumor Immunity with Breast Cancer Therapeutics. In: Rimas Orentas, J.W.H., Byron D. Johnson, editor, Cancer Vaccines and Tumor Immunity: Johnson, John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2008.

    Emens, L.A. Cancer vaccines: on the threshold of success. Expert opinion on emerging drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):295-308.

    Kim, P.S.; Armstrong, T.D.; Song, H.; Wolpoe, M.E.; Weiss, V.; Manning, E.A.; Huang, L.Q.; Murata, S.; Sgouros, G.; Emens, L.A.; Reilly, R.T.; Jaffee, E.M. Antibody association with HER-2/neu-targeted vaccine enhances CD8 T cell responses in mice through Fc-mediated activation of DCs. J Clin Invest. 2008 May;118(5):1700-1711.

    Balmanoukian, A.; Zhang, Z.; Jeter, S.; Slater, S.; Armstrong, D.K.; Emens, L.A.; Fetting, J.H.; Wolff, A.C.; Davidson, N.E.; Jacobs, L.; Lange, J.; Tsangaris, T.N.; Zellars, R.; Gabrielson, E.; Stearns, V. African American women who receive primary anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer suffer worse outcomes compared with white women. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug 1;27(22):e35-37; author reply e38-39.

    Emens, L.A. GM-CSF-secreting vaccines for solid tumors. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 Dec;10(12):1315-1324.

    Emens, L.A.; Asquith, J.M.; Leatherman, J.M.; Kobrin, B.J.; Petrik, S.; Laiko, M.; Levi, J.; Daphtary, M.M.; Biedrzycki, B.; Wolff, A.C.; Stearns, V.; Disis, M.L.; Ye, X.; Piantadosi, S.; Fetting, J.H.; Davidson, N.E.; Jaffee, E.M. Timed sequential treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and an allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting breast tumor vaccine: a chemotherapy dose-ranging factorial study of safety and immune activation. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Dec 10;27(35):5911-5918.

    Emens, L.A.; Davidson, N.E. Postoperative endocrine therapy for invasive breast cancer. Cancer Treat Res. 2009;151:139-161.

    Zellars, R.C.; Stearns, V.; Frassica, D.; Asrari, F.; Tsangaris, T.; Myers, L.; DiPasquale, S.; Lange, J.R.; Jacobs, L.K.; Emens, L.A.; Armstrong, D.K.; Fetting, J.H.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Davidson, N.E.; Wolff, A.C. Feasibility trial of partial breast irradiation with concurrent dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jun 10;27(17):2816-2822.

    Chumsri, S.; Jeter, S.; Jacobs, L.K.; Nassar, H.; Armstrong, D.K.; Emens, L.A.; Fetting, J.H.; Lange, J.R.; Riley, C.; Tsangaris, T.N.; Wolff, A.C.; Zellars, R.; Zhang, Z.; Stearns, V. Pathologic complete response to preoperative sequential doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide and single-agent taxane with or without trastuzumab in stage II/III HER2-positive breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2010 Feb;10(1):40-45.

    Descourt, P.; Carlier, T.; Du, Y.; Song, X.; Buvat, I.; Frey, E.C.; Bardies, M.; Tsui, B.M.; Visvikis, D. Implementation of angular response function modeling in SPECT simulations with GATE. Phys Med Biol. 2010 May 7;55(9):N253-266.

    Edwards, J.P.; Emens, L.A. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib reverses the suppression of IL-12 and enhancement of IL-10 by PGE in murine macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010 Oct;10(10):1220-1228.

    Emens, L.A. Chemoimmunotherapy. Cancer J. 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):295-303.

    Gupta, R.; Emens, L.A. GM-CSF-secreting vaccines for solid tumors: moving forward. Discov Med. 2010 Jul;10(50):52-60.

    Pfannenstiel, L.W.; Lam, S.S.; Emens, L.A.; Jaffee, E.M.; Armstrong, T.D. Paclitaxel enhances early dendritic cell maturation and function through TLR4 signaling in mice. Cell Immunol. 2010;263(1):79-87.

    Towler, W.I.; James, M.M.; Ray, S.C.; Wang, L.; Donnell, D.; Mwatha, A.; Guay, L.; Nakabiito, C.; Musoke, P.; Jackson, J.B.; Eshleman, S.H. Analysis of HIV diversity using a high-resolution melting assay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Aug;26(8):913-918.
  • Academic Affiliations & Courses +
  • Activities & Honors +

    Honors

    1995 Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society
    2003 Clinician Scientist Award
    2006 American Cancer Society Research Scholar Award
    2009 YWCA of Greater Baltimore Presidents Award for Professional Leadership
    2009 Maryland Governors Citation
  • Videos & Media +
  • Upcoming Events +
  • Contact & Locations +

    Locations

    Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
    401 N. Broadway
    Baltimore, MD 21231
    Phone: 410-502-7051
    Appointment Phone: 410-955-8964
    Fax: 410-614-8216
    Location Map

    Department/Division

    • Oncology

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