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Michael Joseph Borowitz, MD

Professor of Pathology
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The Johns Hopkins Hospital

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Call 410-464-6641 (8a.m. to 6p.m., EST, Mon-Fri)

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Call +1-410-502-0773 (7a.m. to 6p.m., EST, Mon-Fri)

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  • Professor of Pathology
  • Professor of Oncology

Centers & Institutes

  • Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center


Oncology, Pathology


  • English
Additional Resources +
  • Education +


    • Duke University School of Medicine ( Durham NC) (1977)
    • Duke University School of Medicine ( Durham NC) (1976)


    • Duke University School of Medicine / Anatomic and Clinical Pathology ( Durham NC) (1981)


    • American Board of Pathology / Anatomic & Clinical Pathology (1981)
  • Research & Publications +

    Selected Publications

    Research Summary
    Over the past five years, we have studied samples of more than 2,000 patients enrolled in Childrens Oncology Group trials from more than 100 institutions, and have demonstrated that nearly 30 percent of them harbor MRD at the end of induction therapy. MRD at the end of induction therapy was shown to correlate with early marrow response as assessed by day 7 marrow morphology, thereby validating the assumption that this is an additional means to assess response to therapy. MRD correlates with other risk factors, including age, white count and cytogenetic abnormalities, but any subgroup of patients defined by traditional risk factors can be divided into MRD-positive and MRD-negative groups, and some good, risk groups have paradoxically high levels of MRD at end induction, suggesting that the pattern of response to therapy may be dependent on specific genetic abnormalities. Data on the correlation of MRD with patient outcome are still maturing.

    Journal Citations
    Bhojwani, D.; Kang, H.; Moskowitz, N.P.; Min, D.J.; Lee, H.; Potter, J.W.; Davidson, G.; Willman, C.L.; Borowitz, M.J.; Belitskaya-Levy, I.; Hunger, S.P.; Raetz, E.A.; Carroll, W.L. Biologic pathways associated with relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study. Blood. 2006 Jul 15;108(2):711-717.

    Chen, I.M.; Chakerian, A.; Devidas, M.; Borowitz, M.J.; Hunger, S.P.; Willman, C.L.; Viswanatha, D.S. Resolution of ambiguous low-level positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction results in TEL-AML1 positive ALL using a post-PCR fluorescent oligoligation method. Br J Haematol. 2006 Nov;135(3):358-361.

    Kickler, T.S.; Oguni, S.; Borowitz, M.J. A clinical evaluation of high fluorescent platelet fraction percentage in thrombocytopenia. American journal of clinical pathology. 2006 Feb;125(2):282-287.

    Matsui, W.H.; Brodsky, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Borowitz, M.J.; Jones, R.J. Quantitative analysis of bone marrow CD34 cells in aplastic anemia and hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia. 2006 Mar;20(3):458-462.

    Nayer, H.; Murphy, K.M.; Hawkins, A.L.; Long, P.P.; Gillison, M.; Borowitz, M.; Griffin, C.A. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities and BCL2 rearrangementin interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006 Dec;47(12):2651-2654.

    Wu, J.M.; Borowitz, M.J.; Weir, E.G. The usefulness of CD71 expression by flow cytometry for differentiating indolent from aggressive CD10+ B-cell lymphomas. American journal of clinical pathology. 2006 Jul;126(1):39-46.

    Davis, B.H.; Holden, J.T.; Bene, M.C.; Borowitz, M.J.; Braylan, R.C.; Cornfield, D.; Gorczyca, W.; Lee, R.; Maiese, R.; Orfao, A.; Wells, D.; Wood, B.L.; Stetler-Stevenson, M. 2006 Bethesda International Consensus recommendations on the flow cytometric immunophenotypic analysis of hematolymphoid neoplasia: medical indications. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2007;72 Suppl 1:S5-13.

    Schultz, K.R.; Pullen, D.J.; Sather, H.N.; Shuster, J.J.; Devidas, M.; Borowitz, M.J.; Carroll, A.J.; Heerema, N.A.; Rubnitz, J.E.; Loh, M.L.; Raetz, E.A.; Winick, N.J.; Hunger, S.P.; Carroll, W.L.; Gaynon, P.S.; Camitta, B.M. Risk- and response-based classification of childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a combined analysis of prognostic markers from the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) and Children's Cancer Group (CCG). Blood. 2007 Feb 1;109(3):926-935.

    Weir, E.G.; Ali Ansari-Lari, M.; Batista, D.A.; Griffin, C.A.; Fuller, S.; Smith, B.D.; Borowitz, M.J. Acute bilineal leukemia: a rare disease with poor outcome. Leukemia. 2007 Nov;21(11):2264-2270.

    Borowitz, M.; Westra, W.H.; Illei, P.B.; Cooley, L.D.; Kant, J.A.; Sokoll, L.J.; Chan, D.W.; Sanfilippo, F. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. In: Abeloff; Armitage; Kastan; Niederhuberl, editors. 4th ed, Clinical Oncology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2008.

    Borowitz, M.J.; Devidas, M.; Hunger, S.P.; Bowman, W.P.; Carroll, A.J.; Carroll, W.L.; Linda, S.; Martin, P.L.; Pullen, D.J.; Viswanatha, D.; Willman, C.L.; Winick, N.; Camitta, B.M. Clinical significance of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its relationship to other prognostic factors: a Children's Oncology Group study. Blood. 2008 Jun 15;111(12):5477-5485.

    Davies, S.M.; Borowitz, M.J.; Rosner, G.L.; Ritz, K.; Devidas, M.; Winick, N.; Martin, P.L.; Bowman, P.; Elliott, J.; Willman, C.; Das, S.; Cook, E.H.; Relling, M.V. Pharmacogenetics of minimal residual disease response in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood. 2008 Jan 8;111:2984-2990.

    Gamper, C.J.; Takemoto, C.M.; Schowinsky, J.; Borowitz, M.J.; Horwitz, M.S.; Strouse, J.J. Lymphadenopathy as the primary manifestation of malignant transformation in two patients with severe congenital neutropenia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 May;50(5):1072-1075.

    Kuo, D.Z.; Milstone, A.M.; Omokaro, S.O.; Friedman, A.D.; Karanjawala, Z.E.; Borowitz, M.; Joyner, M.L.; Halsey, N.A.; Sibinga, E.M. Epstein-Barr virus-associated central nervous system lymphoproliferative disease in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome responsive to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 1;46(9):1476-1478.

    Warlick, E.D.; O'Donnell, P.V.; Borowitz, M.; Grupka, N.; Decloe, L.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Borrello, I.; Brodsky, R.; Fuchs, E.; Huff, C.A.; Luznik, L.; Matsui, W.; Ambinder, R.; Jones, R.J.; Douglas Smith, B. Myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplant using T cell depleted allografts followed by post-transplant GM-CSF in high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res. 2008 Sep;32(9):1439-1447.

    Kasamon, Y.L.; Wahl, R.L.; Ziessman, H.A.; Blackford, A.L.; Goodman, S.N.; Fidyk, C.A.; Rogers, K.M.; Bolanos-Meade, J.; Borowitz, M.J.; Ambinder, R.F.; Jones, R.J.; Swinnen, L.J. Phase II study of risk-adapted therapy of newly diagnosed, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on midtreatment FDG-PET scanning. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009 Feb;15(2):242-248.

    Mullighan, C.G.; Su, X.; Zhang, J.; Radtke, I.; Phillips, L.A.; Miller, C.B.; Ma, J.; Liu, W.; Cheng, C.; Schulman, B.A.; Harvey, R.C.; Chen, I.M.; Clifford, R.J.; Carroll, W.L.; Reaman, G.; Bowman, W.P.; Devidas, M.; Gerhard, D.S.; Yang, W.; Relling, M.V.; Shurtleff, S.A.; Campana, D.; Borowitz, M.J.; Pui, C.H.; Smith, M.; Hunger, S.P.; Willman, C.L.; Downing, J.R. Deletion of IKZF1 and Prognosis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 7;360:470-480.

    Borowitz, M.J.; Craig, F.E.; Digiuseppe, J.A.; Illingworth, A.J.; Rosse, W.; Sutherland, D.R.; Wittwer, C.T.; Richards, S.J. Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and related disorders by flow cytometry. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2010 Jul;78(4):211-230.

    Ansari-Lari, M. A., Yang, C. F., Tinawi-Aljundi, R., Cooper, L., Long, L., Allan, R. H., et al. 2004. FLT3 mutations in myeloid sarcoma. Brit. J. Haematol. 126:785-791.

    Chang, E. T., Zheng, T., Lennette, E. T., Weir, E. G., Borowitz, M. J., Mann, R. B., et al. 2004. Heterogeneity of risk factors and antibody profiles in Epstein-Barr virus genome-positive and negative Hodgkins lymphoma. J. Infect. Dis. 189:2271-2281.

    Chang, E. T., Zheng, T., Weir, E. G., Borowitz, M. J., Mann, R. B., Spiegelman, D., et al. 2004. Aspirin and the risk of Hodgkins lymphoma in a population-based, case-control study. J. Natl. Cancer I. 96:305-311.

    Glaser, S. L., Gulley, M. L., Borowitz, M. J., Craig, F. E, Mann, R. B., Stewart, S. L., et al. 2004. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of Epstein-Barr virus detection in Hodgkins lymphoma using histochemical procedures. Leukemia Lymphoma. 45:489-497.

    Kasamon, Y. L., Jones, R. J., Diehl, L. F., Nayer, H., Borowitz, M. J., Garrett-Mayer, E. S., et al. 2005. Outcomes of autologous and allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma. Biol. Blood Marrow Tr. 11:39-46.

    Kasamon, Y. L., Jones, R. J., Piantadosi, S., Ambinder, R. F., Abrams, R. A., Borowitz, M. J., et al. 2005. High-dose therapy and blood or marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkins lymphoma with central nervous system involvement. Biol. Blood Marrow Tr. 11:93-100.

    Kickler, T. S., Borowitz, M. J., Thompson, R. E., Charintranont, N., & Law, R. 2004. Ret-Y, a measure of reticulocyte size: a sensitive indicator of iron deficiency anemia. Clin. Lab. Haematol. 26:423-427.

    Sutcliffe, M. J., Shuster, J. J., Sather, H. N., Camitta, B. M., Pullen, J., Schultz, K. R., et al. 2005. High concordance from independent studies by the Childrens Cancer Group (CCG) and Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) associating favorable prognosis with combined trisomies 4, 10, and 17 in children with NCI standard-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Childrens Oncology Group (COG) initiative. Leukemia. 19:734-740.


    Borowitz, M. J., Pullen, D. J., Winick, N. L., Martin, P. L., Bowman, W. P., & Camitta, B. M. 2005. Comparison of diagnostic and relapse flow cytometry phenotypes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: implications for residual disease detection. A Report from the Childrens Oncology Group. Cytom. Part B-Clin. Cy. 68:18-24.

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    Hospital Main Entrance - Sheikh Zayed Tower
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    Phone: 410-614-2889
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