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William Henry Westra, MD

Professor of Pathology
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The Johns Hopkins Hospital

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  • Professor of Pathology
  • Associate Professor of Dermatology
  • Professor of Oncology
  • Professor of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

Centers & Institutes

  • Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins




  • English
Additional Resources +
  • Education +


    • University of Florida College of Medicine (Gainesville FL) (1990)


    • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Pathology (Baltimore MD) (1994)
    • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Pathology (Baltimore MD) (1993)


    • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Pathology (Baltimore MD) (1994)
    • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine / Pathology (Baltimore MD) (1993)


    • American Board of Pathology / Anatomic Pathology (1994)
  • Research & Publications +

    Selected Publications

    Alphs, H.H.; Eisele, D.W.; Westra, W.H. The role of fine needle aspiration in the evaluation of parotid masses. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Apr;14(2):62-66.

    da Motta, A.C.; Tunkel, D.E.; Westra, W.H.; Yousem, D.M. Imaging findings of a hibernoma of the neck. Ajnr. 2006 Sep;27(8):1658-1659.

    Dodd, L.E.; Sengupta, S.; Chen, I.H.; den Boon, J.A.; Cheng, Y.J.; Westra, W.; Newton, M.A.; Mittl, B.F.; McShane, L.; Chen, C.J.; Ahlquist, P.; Hildesheim, A. Genes involved in DNA repair and nitrosamine metabolism and those located on chromosome 14q32 are dysregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Nov;15(11):2216-2225.

    Hoque, M.O.; Begum, S.; Topaloglu, O.; Chatterjee, A.; Rosenbaum, E.; Van Criekinge, W.; Westra, W.H.; Schoenberg, M.; Zahurak, M.; Goodman, S.N.; Sidransky, D. Quantitation of promoter methylation of multiple genes in urine DNA and bladder cancer detection. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Jul 19;98(14):996-1004.

    Hosler, G.A.; Clark, I.; Zakowski, M.F.; Westra, W.H.; Ali, S.Z. Cytopathologic analysis of thyroid lesions in the pediatric population. Diagnostic cytopathology. 2006 Feb;34(2):101-105.

    Hu, S.; Liu, D.; Tufano, R.P.; Carson, K.A.; Rosenbaum, E.; Cohen, Y.; Holt, E.H.; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, K.; Rhoden, K.J.; Tolaney, S.; Condouris, S.; Tallini, G.; Westra, W.H.; Umbricht, C.B.; Zeiger, M.A.; Califano, J.A.; Vasko, V.; Xing, M. Association of aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes with tumor aggressiveness and BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006 Nov 15;119(10):2322-2329.

    Jiang, W.W.; Rosenbaum, E.; Mambo, E.; Zahurak, M.; Masayesva, B.; Carvalho, A.L.; Zhou, S.; Westra, W.H.; Alberg, A.J.; Sidransky, D.; Koch, W.; Califano, J.A. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in posttreatment salivary rinses from head and neck cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1564-1569.

    Jiang, W.W.; Zahurak, M.; Goldenberg, D.; Milman, Y.; Park, H.L.; Westra, W.H.; Koch, W.; Sidransky, D.; Califano, J. Increased plasma DNA integrity index in head and neck cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2006 Dec 1;119(11):2673-2676.

    Pai, S.I.; Goldstein, B.J.; Studeman, K.D.; Westra, W.H.; Tufano, R.P. Concurrent sporadic parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006 Sep-Oct;27(5):346-348.

    Sengupta, S.; den Boon, J.A.; Chen, I.H.; Newton, M.A.; Dahl, D.B.; Chen, M.; Cheng, Y.J.; Westra, W.H.; Chen, C.J.; Hildesheim, A.; Sugden, B.; Ahlquist, P. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Reveals EBV-Associated Inhibition of MHC Class I Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 15;66(16):7999-8006.

    Thunnissen, F.B.; Kerr, K.M.; Brambilla, E.; Comin, C.E.; Franklin, W.A.; Guldhammer, B.; Westra, W.H.; Flieder, D.B. EU-USA pathology panel for uniform diagnosis in randomised controlled trials for HRCT screening of lung cancer. Eur Respir J. 2006 Aug 9;28:1186-1189.

    Upadhyay, S.; Liu, C.; Chatterjee, A.; Hoque, M.O.; Kim, M.S.; Engles, J.; Westra, W.; Trink, B.; Ratovitski, E.; Sidransky, D. LKB1/STK11 Suppresses Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction and Cellular Invasion through PEA3 in Lung Cancer. Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 15;66(16):7870-7879.

    Westra, W.H.; Sidransky, D. Fluorescence visualization in oral neoplasia: shedding light on an old problem. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 15;12(22):6594-6597.

    Begum, S.; Gillison, M.L.; Nicol, T.L.; Westra, W.H. Detection of human papillomavirus-16 in fine-needle aspirates to determine tumor origin in patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 15;13(4):1186-1191.

    D''Souza, G.; Kreimer, A.R.; Viscidi, R.; Pawlita, M.; Fakhry, C.; Koch, W.M.; Westra, W.H.; Gillison, M.L. Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 10;356(19):1944-1956.

    Lietman, S.A.; Prescott, N.L.; Hicks, D.G.; Westra, W.H.; Levine, M.A. SH3BP2 Is Rarely Mutated in Exon 9 in Giant Cell Lesions Outside Cherubism. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Jun;459:22-27.

    Liu, C.; Zhou, S.; Begum, S.; Sidransky, D.; Westra, W.H.; Brock, M.; Califano, J.A. Increased expression and activity of repair genes TDP1 and XPF in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2007 Mar;55(3):303-311.

    Mithani, S.K.; Taube, J.M.; Zhou, S.; Smith, I.M.; Koch, W.M.; Westra, W.H.; Califano, J.A. Mitochondrial mutations are a late event in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 1;13(15 Pt 1):4331-4335.

    Nayak, C.S.; Carvalho, A.L.; Jeronimo, C.; Henrique, R.; Kim, M.M.; Hoque, M.O.; Chang, S.; Jiang, W.W.; Koch, W.; Westra, W.; Sidransky, D.; Califano, J. Positive correlation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 and death-associated protein kinase hypermethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2007 Aug;117(8):1376-1380.

    Poeta, M.L.; Manola, J.; Goldwasser, M.A.; Forastiere, A.; Benoit, N.; Califano, J.A.; Ridge, J.A.; Goodwin, J.; Kenady, D.; Saunders, J.; Westra, W.; Sidransky, D.; Koch, W.M. TP53 mutations and survival in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 20;357(25):2552-2561.

    Shah, K.V.; Westra, W.H. Genital HPVs in the aerodigestive tract: Etiologic association with a subset of oropharyngeal/tonsillar cancers and with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Disease markers. 2007;23(4):235-245.

    Taube, J.M.; Askin, F.B.; Brock, M.V.; Westra, W. Impact of elastic staining on the staging of peripheral lung cancers. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Jun;31(6):953-956.

    Westra, W.H. Diagnostic difficulties in the classification and grading of salivary gland tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69(2 Suppl):S49-51.

    Zhou, S.; Kachhap, S.; Sun, W.; Wu, G.; Chuang, A.; Poeta, L.; Grumbine, L.; Mithani, S.K.; Chatterjee, A.; Koch, W.; Westra, W.H.; Maitra, A.; Glazer, C.; Carducci, M.; Sidransky, D.; McFate, T.; Verma, A.; Califano, J.A. Frequency and phenotypic implications of mitochondrial DNA mutations in human squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 1;104(18):7540-7545.

    Agrawal, Y.; Koch, W.M.; Xiao, W.; Westra, W.H.; Trivett, A.L.; Symer, D.E.; Gillison, M.L. Oral human papillomavirus infection before and after treatment for human papillomavirus 16-positive and human papillomavirus 16-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 1;14(21):7143-7150.

    Begum, S.; Westra, W.H. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a mixed variant that can be further resolved by HPV status. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1044-1050.

    Borowitz, M.; Westra, W.H.; Illei, P.B.; Cooley, L.D.; Kant, J.A.; Sokoll, L.J.; Chan, D.W.; Sanfilippo, F. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. In: Abeloff; Armitage; Kastan; Niederhuberl, editors. 4th ed, Clinical Oncology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2008.

    Brait, M.; Begum, S.; Carvalho, A.L.; Dasgupta, S.; Vettore, A.L.; Czerniak, B.; Caballero, O.L.; Westra, W.H.; Sidransky, D.; Hoque, M.O. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of Multiple Genes during Pathogenesis of Bladder Cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Oct;17(10):2786-2794.

    Carvalho, A.L.; Jeronimo, C.; Kim, M.M.; Henrique, R.; Zhang, Z.; Hoque, M.O.; Chang, S.; Brait, M.; Nayak, C.S.; Jiang, W.W.; Claybourne, Q.; Tokumaru, Y.; Lee, J.; Goldenberg, D.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Goodman, S.; Moon, C.S.; Koch, W.; Westra, W.H.; Sidransky, D.; Califano, J.A. Evaluation of promoter hypermethylation detection in body fluids as a screening/diagnosis tool for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 1;14(1):97-107.

    Chang, S.S.; Jiang, W.W.; Smith, I.; Poeta, L.M.; Begum, S.; Glazer, C.; Shan, S.; Westra, W.; Sidransky, D.; Califano, J.A. MicroRNA alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008 Dec 15;123(12):2791-2797.

    Chuang, A.Y.; Chuang, T.C.; Chang, S.; Zhou, S.; Begum, S.; Westra, W.H.; Ha, P.K.; Koch, W.M.; Califano, J.A. Presence of HPV DNA in convalescent salivary rinses is an adverse prognostic marker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2008 Oct;44(10):915-919.

    Fakhry, C.; Westra, W.H.; Li, S.; Cmelak, A.; Ridge, J.A.; Pinto, H.; Forastiere, A.; Gillison, M.L. Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Feb 20;100(4):261-269.

    Gillison, M.L.; D''Souza, G.; Westra, W.; Sugar, E.; Xiao, W.; Begum, S.; Viscidi, R. Distinct risk factor profiles for human papillomavirus type 16-positive and human papillomavirus type 16-negative head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Mar 19;100(6):407-420.

    Goldenberg, D.; Begum, S.; Westra, W.H.; Khan, Z.; Sciubba, J.; Pai, S.I.; Califano, J.A.; Tufano, R.P.; Koch, W.M. Cystic lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck cancer: An HPV-associated phenomenon. Head Neck. 2008 Jul;30(7):898-903.

    Hoque, M.O.; Begum, S.; Brait, M.; Jeronimo, C.; Zahurak, M.; Ostrow, K.L.; Rosenbaum, E.; Trock, B.; Westra, W.H.; Schoenberg, M.; Goodman, S.N.; Sidransky, D. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 promoter methylation is an independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer. J Urol. 2008 Feb;179(2):743-747.

    Hoque, M.O.; Kim, M.S.; Ostrow, K.L.; Liu, J.; Wisman, G.B.; Park, H.L.; Poeta, M.L.; Jeronimo, C.; Henrique, R.; Lendvai, A.; Schuuring, E.; Begum, S.; Rosenbaum, E.; Ongenaert, M.; Yamashita, K.; Califano, J.; Westra, W.; van der Zee, A.G.; Van Criekinge, W.; Sidransky, D. Genome-wide promoter analysis uncovers portions of the cancer methylome. Cancer Res. 2008 Apr 15;68(8):2661-2670.

    Licchesi, J.D.; Westra, W.H.; Hooker, C.M.; Herman, J.G. Promoter hypermethylation of hallmark cancer genes in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 May 1;14(9):2570-2578.

    Licchesi, J.D.; Westra, W.H.; Hooker, C.M.; Machida, E.O.; Baylin, S.B.; Herman, J.G. Epigenetic alteration of Wnt pathway antagonists in progressive glandular neoplasia of the lung. Carcinogenesis. 2008 May;29(5):895-904.

    Park, H.L.; Kim, M.S.; Yamashita, K.; Westra, W.; Carvalho, A.L.; Lee, J.; Jiang, W.W.; Baek, J.H.; Liu, J.; Osada, M.; Moon, C.S.; Califano, J.A.; Mori, M.; Sidransky, D. DCC promoter hypermethylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 1;122(11):2498-2502.

    Prasad, N.B.; Somervell, H.; Tufano, R.P.; Dackiw, A.P.; Marohn, M.R.; Califano, J.A.; Wang, Y.; Westra, W.H.; Clark, D.P.; Umbricht, C.B.; Libutti, S.K.; Zeiger, M.A. Identification of genes differentially expressed in benign versus malignant thyroid tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jun 1;14(11):3327-3337.

    Subhawong, A.P.; Subhawong, T.; Nassar, H.; Kouprina, N.; Begum, S.; Vang, R.; Westra, W.H.; Argani, P. Most Basal-like Breast Carcinomas Demonstrate the Same Rb-/p16+ Immunophenotype as the HPV-related Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinomas Which They Resemble Morphologically. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Oct 17.

    Taube, J.M.; Begum, S.; Shi, C.; Eshleman, J.R.; Westra, W.H. Benign Nodal Nevi Frequently Harbor the Activating V600E BRAF Mutation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Nov 19.

    Wang, Y.; Kowalski, J.; Tsai, H.L.; Marik, R.; Prasad, N.; Somervell, H.; Lo, P.K.; Sangenario, L.E.; Dyrskjot, L.; Orntoft, T.F.; Westra, W.H.; Meeker, A.K.; Eshleman, J.R.; Umbricht, C.B.; Zeiger, M.A. Differentiating alternative splice variant patterns of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in thyroid neoplasms. Thyroid. 2008 Oct;18(10):1055-1063.

    Westra, W.H.; Taube, J.M.; Poeta, M.L.; Begum, S.; Sidransky, D.; Koch, W.M. Inverse Relationship between Human Papillomavirus-16 Infection and Disruptive p53 Gene Mutations in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 15;14(2):366-369.

    Zhao, M.; Begum, S.; Ha, P.K.; Westra, W.; Califano, J. Downregulation of RAD17 in head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 2008 Jan;30(1):35-42.

    Adelstein, D.J.; Ridge, J.A.; Gillison, M.L.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; D''Souza, G.; Gravitt, P.E.; Westra, W.; Psyrri, A.; Kast, W.M.; Koutsky, L.A.; Giuliano, A.; Krosnick, S.; Trotti, A.; Schuller, D.E.; Forastiere, A.; Ullmann, C.D. Head and neck squamous cell cancer and the human papillomavirus: summary of a National Cancer Institute State of the Science Meeting, November 9-10, 2008, Washington, D.C. Head Neck. 2009 Nov;31(11):1393-1422.

    Ostrow, K.L.; Park, H.L.; Hoque, M.O.; Kim, M.S.; Liu, J.; Argani, P.; Westra, W.; Van Criekinge, W.; Sidransky, D. Pharmacologic unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Feb 15;15(4):1184-1191.

    Pai, S.I.; Westra, W.H. Molecular Pathology of Head and Neck Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment. Annu Rev Pathol. 2009 Aug 26;4:49-70.

    Poeta, M.L.; Manola, J.; Goldenberg, D.; Forastiere, A.; Califano, J.A.; Ridge, J.A.; Goodwin, J.; Kenady, D.; Saunders, J.; Westra, W.; Sidransky, D.; Koch, W.M. The Ligamp TP53 Assay for Detection of Minimal Residual Disease in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Surgical Margins. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Dec 15;15(24):7658-7665.

    Subhawong, A.P.; Subhawong, T.; Nassar, H.; Kouprina, N.; Begum, S.; Vang, R.; Westra, W.H.; Argani, P. Most basal-like breast carcinomas demonstrate the same Rb-/p16+ immunophenotype as the HPV-related poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas which they resemble morphologically. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Feb;33(2):163-175.

    Ang, K.K.; Harris, J.; Wheeler, R.; Weber, R.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Nguyen-Tan, P.F.; Westra, W.H.; Chung, C.H.; Jordan, R.C.; Lu, C.; Kim, H.; Axelrod, R.; Silverman, C.C.; Redmond, K.P.; Gillison, M.L. Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 1;363(1):24-35.

    Bishop, J.A.; Westra, W.H. Plasmablastic lymphoma involving the parotid gland. Head and neck pathology. 2010 Jun;4(2):148-151.

    Dasgupta, S.; Koch, R.; Westra, W.H.; Califano, J.A.; Ha, P.K.; Sidransky, D.; Koch, W.M. Mitochondrial DNA mutation in normal margins and tumors of recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Sep;3(9):1205-1211.

    Durr, M.L.; Mydlarz, W.K.; Shao, C.; Zahurak, M.L.; Chuang, A.Y.; Hoque, M.O.; Westra, W.H.; Liegeois, N.J.; Califano, J.A.; Sidransky, D.; Ha, P.K. Quantitative methylation profiles for multiple tumor suppressor gene promoters in salivary gland tumors. PLoS One. 2010;5(5):e10828.

    Hoque, M.O.; Brait, M.; Rosenbaum, E.; Poeta, M.L.; Pal, P.; Begum, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Carvalho, A.L.; Ahrendt, S.A.; Westra, W.H.; Sidransky, D. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of erbB signaling pathway genes in lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2010 Dec;5(12):1887-1893.

    Loyo, M.; Brait, M.; Kim, M.S.; Ostrow, K.L.; Jie, C.C.; Chuang, A.Y.; Califano, J.A.; Liegeois, N.J.; Begum, S.; Westra, W.H.; Hoque, M.O.; Tao, Q.; Sidransky, D. A survey of methylated candidate tumor suppressor genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 6.

    Loyo, M.; Guerrero-Preston, R.; Brait, M.; Hoque, M.O.; Chuang, A.; Kim, M.S.; Sharma, R.; Liegeois, N.J.; Koch, W.M.; Califano, J.A.; Westra, W.H.; Sidransky, D. Quantitative detection of Merkel cell virus in human tissues and possible mode of transmission. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jun 15;126(12):2991-2996.

    Lyford-Pike, S.; Westra, W.H.; Loyo, M.; Peng, S.; Hung, C.F.; Wu, A.A.; Flint, P.W.; Tunkel, D.E.; Saunders, J.R.; Pai, S.I. Differential expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in juvenile and adult-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Histopathology. 2010 Nov;57(5):768-770.

    Marur, S.; D''Souza, G.; Westra, W.H.; Forastiere, A.A. HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Aug;11(8):781-789.

    Meguid, R.A.; Hooker, C.M.; Harris, J.; Xu, L.; Westra, W.H.; Sherwood, J.T.; Sussman, M.; Cattaneo, S.M., 2nd; Shin, J.; Cox, S.; Christensen, J.; Prints, Y.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, J.; Yang, S.C.; Brock, M.V. Long-term survival outcomes by smoking status in surgical and nonsurgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer: comparing never smokers and current smokers. Chest. 2010 Sep;138(3):500-509.

    Nichols, A.C.; Finkelstein, D.M.; Faquin, W.C.; Westra, W.H.; Mroz, E.A.; Kneuertz, P.; Begum, S.; Michaud, W.A.; Busse, P.M.; Clark, J.R.; Rocco, J.W. Bcl2 and human papilloma virus 16 as predictors of outcome following concurrent chemoradiation for advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Apr 1;16(7):2138-2146.

    Singhi, A.D.; Westra, W.H. Comparison of human papillomavirus in situ hybridization and p16 immunohistochemistry in the detection of human papillomavirus-associated head and neck cancer based on a prospective clinical experience. Cancer. 2010 May 1;116(9):2166-2173.

    Wang, C.C.; Friedman, L.; Kennedy, G.C.; Wang, H.; Kebebew, E.; Steward, D.L.; Zeiger, M.A.; Westra, W.H.; Wang, Y.; Khanafshar, E.; Fellegara, G.; Rosai, J.; Livolsi, V.; Lanman, R.B. A Large Multicenter Correlation Study of Thyroid Nodule Cytopathology and Histopathology. Thyroid. 2010 Dec 29.

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